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One of the interesting things to me about spaceship is that it is a mechanical vehicle, just as an automobile. If you own a car, you realize that you must put oil and gas into it, and you must put water in the radiator and take care of the care as a whole. You begin to develop quite a little thermodynamic sense. You know that you are either going to have to keep the machine in a good order or it is going to be in trouble and fail to function. We have not been seeing our Spaceship Earth as an integrally-designed machine which to be persistently successful, must be comprehended and serviced in total.
Now there is one outstanding important fact regarding Spaceship Earth, and this is that no instruction book came with it. I think it is very significant that there is no instruction book, for successfully operating of our ship, in view of the infinite attention to all other details displayed by our ship. It must be taken as deliberate and purposeful that an instruction book was omitted. Lack of instruction has forces us to find out that there are two kinds of mangoes – unripe mangoes that will kill us and ripped mangoes which will nourish us. And we had to find out ways of telling which-was-which mangoes before we ate it or otherwise we would die. So we were forced, because of this to devise scientific experimental procedures and to interpret effectively the significance of the experimental findings. Thus, because the instruction manual was missing, we are learning how we can safely survive on the planet.
Quite clearly, all living being are utterly helpless at the moment of birth. The human child stays helpless longer that the young of any species. Apparently, it is part of ‘invention’ that man is meant to be utterly helpless through certain anthropological phases. When he begins to be able to get on a little better, he is meant to discover some of the physical principles inherent in the universe as well as the many recourses around him which will further multiply his knowledge. Designed into this Spaceship Earth’s total wealth was a big safety factor. This allowed man to be very ignorant for a long time until he had amassed enough experiences from which to extract progressively the system of generalised principles governing increase of energy. The design omission of the instruction book forced man to discover retrospectively just what his most important capabilities are. He learned to generalise fundamental principles of universe.
QUESTIONS ON PASSAGE 1
1. Which Use of English Paper Type is given to you?
(a) Type A
(b) Type B
(c) Type C
(d) Type D
2. According to the writer, the exciting thing about Spaceship Earth is that
(a) has no instruction manual
(b) it is not difficult to maintain
(c) is peculiar to other automobiles
(d) is relatively easy to operate
3. The absence of instruction manual in Spaceship Earth has
(a) made the operation of the Spaceship Earth difficult
(b) forced man to devise other means of travelling in spacecraft
(c) challenged man’s inquisitiveness
(d) made man helpless
4. From the passage, it can be deduced that man
(a) learns by experiment and education
(b) learns by chance and accidentally
(c) is incapable of solving all his problems
(d) by his nature is in constant search of knowledge
5. The writer’s mood in the passage is that of
Stress is by far the most common cause of ill health in our society, and may be the underlying cause of as many as 70-80% of all visits to family doctors. It is also the problem that every doctor shares with patients. Experts note that stress is an issue everyone can relate to experimentally. In studying and better understanding about stress, we can derive personal as well as professional benefits.
Stress can be overcome without undergoing duress. They often say anyone who wants to help someone deal with his/her stress should learn to handle his/hers first. The manifestations of stress are legion. It can contribute or mimick just about any symptom you can think of. However, the main symptoms are physical, mental, emotional and behavioural. The cause of stress are multiple and varied but they can be classified into external and internal. External stressors can include relatively getting sick or dying, jobs being lost or people criticising or one becoming angry. However, most of the stress people experience is self-generated.
Experts tell us that we create the majority of our upset indicating that because we cause most of our own stress, we can do something about it. This gives us a measure of choice and control that we do not always have when outside forces acts on us. This also leads to a basic premise about stress reduction. To master stress-change, you have to figure out what you are doing that is contributing to your problem and change it. These changes fall into behaviour, thinking, lifestyle choices and / or situations you are in. By getting to the root cause of your stress, you can prevent recurrences.
As a way of draining off stress energy, nothing beats aerobic exercise. To understand why, we need to review what stress is. People often think of stress as pressure at work, a demanding boss, a sick child or rush-hour traffic. These may be triggers but stress is actually the body reaction to factors such as these. Stress is the fight-or-flight response in the body, mediated be adrenaline and other stress hormones, and comprised such physiologic changes as increased in heart rate and blood pressure, faster breathing, muscle tension, dilated pupils, dry mouth and increased blood sugar. In order word, stress is the state of increased arousal necessary for an organism to defend itself at a time of danger.
Exercise is the most logical way to dissipate the excess energy. It is what our bodies are trying to do when we pace around or tap our legs and fingers. It is much better to channel it into a more complete form of exercise like a brisk walk, a run, a bike ride, or a game of squash.
Just as we are all capable of mounting up and sustaining a stress reaction, we have also inherited the ability to put our bodies into a state of deep relaxation called the ‘relaxation response’. In this state, all the physiologic events in the stress reaction are reversed. Pulse slows, blood pressure falls, breathing slows and muscle relax.
QUESTIONS ON PASSAGE 2
6. The expression, … stress is an issue everybody can relate to experimentally, means that
(a) it is better understood when experienced
(b) its problem can be solved by everybody
(c) everybody avoids it
(d) everybody encounters it.
7. Which of the following is true according to the passage?
(a) Stress is mostly caused by internal factors
(b) Stress can only be avoided during relaxation
(c) Stress is better handled by the individual
(d) The issues of stress can be solved with no effort
8. According to the passage, the major step in controlling stress is
(a) changes one’s attitude to stressors
(b) understanding the history of disease
(c) visiting family doctors for checkup and treatment
(d) constant exercise to dissipate every energy
9. The experts feel one can control one’s stress because
(a) its causes are understandable
(b) it is not difficult to control
(c) external factors contribute less stress
(d) it is individually initiated
10. From the passage, it can be deduced that stress is
(a) hormonal disorder in the body system
(b) individually induced problems
(c) bodily reaction to internal factors
(d) bodily reaction to external factors
There are many indicators with which to assess or measure corruption. One of them is the affluent living habit of the public official compared to his / her income. Corruption occurs when a public officials expects to be induced to perform an act which that public officials is ordinarily required to do by law.
Corruption can slow down development. One of the most widely discussed consequences of corruption is the distortion of governmental expenditure. This often results in public money being wasted on white elephant projects, rather than people oriented services, such as health and education. As a result, more opportunities are presented for corrupt use or diversion of funds. Raising the ethical standard of governance can lead to many benefits especially for the economic, political and social development of a country.
Fighting corruption and promoting governance is therefore crucial to developing an environment that facilitates the social, political and economic development of the people. However, while there are often general statement made about the effect of corruption on poverty and development. There is not an explicit recognition that corruption is more than just wealth misappropriation or abuse of power. Corruption impoverishes countries and deprives their citizens of good governance. It destabilizes economic systems. When crime and other illegal activities flourish, basic public functions are eroded and the quality of life of the people is reduced. Bribery, for example, is universally regarded as a crime, but it also reflects socio-economic problems that require broad-based preventive measures, and the involvement of the society at large.
Another implication of global measures against corruption in making government work better by improving the economy. Finally, redesigning political and regulatory structures will reduce corruption and other anti-system players that encourage corrupt practice.
QUESTIONS ON PASSAGE 3
11. According to the writer, corruption is triggered off by
(a) unnecessary affluence
(b) selfish interest
(c) private officials
(d) public officers
12. From the passage, one of the consequences of corruption is that
(a) large projects are executed
(b) it is beneficial to wealth people whole stole public wealth
(c) it impede the progress of a nation
(d) people get what they want with so much money to spend
13. Who, according to the writer should prevent corruption?
(a) Lawyers and Police
(b) Corrupt public officers
(c) The government
(d) The people
14. Which of the following is an indication of ethical standard of governance?
(a) Fundamental human right
(b) Socio-economic instability
(c) Democratic governance
(15) Bloated expenditure
15. The essence of fighting corruption, according to the passage, is to
(a) send the corrupt to yell
(b) promote good governance
(c) punish corrupt politicians
(d) make people richer
Drought is a word that invokes strong emotions. This is not surprising as the …16…[A. ideology B. phenomenon C. idea D. component] is usually accompanied by a number of unpleasant developments. These developments have …17 … (A. feedback B. Results C. implications D. outcomes] for all citizens, starting from the peasant farmers to the state and federal governments which may be plunged into emergency and crises situations which, if not successfully …18… [A. managed B. Manipulated C. examined D. studied] could result in social unrest.
The timeliness of the onset of the rains in various regions of the country and their adequate distribution thereafter have become …19… [A. objects B. subjects C. issues D. topics]of considerable anxiety to all people. The fact, however, is that periodic reduction in normal …20… [A. amount B. supply C. size D. flood] of rainfall in the country is not new.
Since large areas of the country are drought prone, the consequences are …21… [A. effective B. disastrous C. evident D. inevitable ]. Dry spells could be very severe. There are two aspects of coping with drought. One has to do with emergency measures and the other with …22… [A. routine B. organized C. urgent D. delayed] measures. An immediate consequence of any drought would be famine. In addition, where whole populations are forced to abandon their lands or pastures in search of food, there are bound to be other lasting and …23… [A. longitudinal B. objective C. simultaneous D. parallel ] consequences such as distress, sales of cattle by livestock owners in order to buy food.
Government should provided farmers with agricultural inputs and ensure that they have easy access to these inputs under the relief …24… [A. action B. process C. scheme D. plan]. Emergency measures will be much more …25… [A. normal B. correct C. idealistic D. effective] if a mechanism is established to ensure adequate preparedness and defence against the occurrence of drought.
26. Though Mr. Iro is a new chairman, he views other members with jaundiced eye.
(a) He takes a rather forceful position on dealing with his members
(b) He takes an unfavourable position concerning his members
(c) He takes a sickly view of his members
(d) He takes a rather hazy view of his members
27. People are not interested in who rules.
(a) People are not ruled by the leaders they want
(b) People are not concerned about who rules them
(c) The rulers are not concerned about the people
(d) People who rule are not interested in the ruled.
28. It was good to steer a middle course in whatever one does.
(a) It is always good to get midway in anything one does
(b) It is always good to act with moderation
(c) It is always good to move away from the forefront
(d) It is always good to work very hard.
29. The witness said he had no axe to grind with his brothers
(a) He had no hatred for the brothers
(b) He had no axe and therefore stole the matchet
(c) He had no axe and therefore borrowed their matchet
(d) He had no vested interest in the brothers
30. The footballers moved with their tails between their legs.
(a) they moved happily because they won the match
(b) they were unhappy because they had been despised by their opponents
(c) they were ashamed because they had been defeated
(d) they moved with their tails between their legs.
31. The headmaster managed to talk his way out of having to give a speech
(a) he delivered a speech despite the difficulty
(b) he managed to give a speech out of a difficult situation
(c) he managed to get himself out of a difficult situation
(d) he managed to talk on his way.
32. As regards the matter, we have crossed the rubicon
(a) we are completely at a loss
(b) we are irrevocably committed
(c) we are already qualified
(d) we are perfectly committed.
33. Uche is full of himself
(a) He is conceited
(b) He is complete
(c) He is a rich man
(d) H e is careful.
34. As debutants in that tournament, the Super Eagles were up against their first opponents by three goals to nill
(a) The Super Eagles were playing in the tournament for the first time, but they won their match by three goals to nothing
(b) Though the Super Eagles were rated as the weakest side in the tournament, they won their first match by three goals to nill
(c) Even though the Super Eagles were playing without some of their regulars, they won their match by three goals to nill.
(d) As the best attackers in the match, the Super Eagles easily defeated their opponents by three goals to nothing.
35. The woman was mournful as her husband was found dead drunk
(a) She was sad because of her husband was absolutely drunk
(b) She was apprehensive that her husband would drink again as soon he recovered from the drunken stupor
(c) She was sad because her husband was drunk and always as helpless as a dead man
(d) She was mourning because her husband drank and died
36. I am optimistic about the interview though it was a mind-bending exercise
(a) An enervating
(b) A debilitating
(c) A difficult
(d) An easy
37. The trader was amused by the cut-throat rush for the goods
38. The teacher said that Ali’s essay was full of many redundant details
39. His father surmounted the myriad of obstacles on his way
40. Her ingenuous smile drew our attention
41. Ndeni gave a flawless speech at the party
(a) A wonderful
(b) A careless
(c) An interesting
(d) An imperfect
42. Beneath Ado’s guff exterior, he’s really very kind-hearted
43. The captain says sports is being debased by commercial sponsorship
44. Governing a country is not always as straightforward as people sometimes imagine
45. The crowd was very receptive to the speaker’s suggestion
(b) R epellent
46. There was a general acquiescence on the new drug law
47. Aisha seems to feel ambivalent about her future
48.The report of the committee contained a plethora of details
49. The weather was still very heavy and sultry
(a) Wintry and shadowy
(b) Cold and friendly
(c) Cloudy and thundery
(d) Hot and uncomfortable
50. Ada gave her husband a look that made words superfluous
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