Topics in Agricultural ScienceClay soil explained with its types and characteristics Loamy soil explained with its characteristics Sandy soil: Characteristics of sandy soil and ways to make it fertile Soil explained with its composition Types of agricultural practices Crop rotation explained Benefits of crop rotation Differences between subsistence and commercial farming Subsistence farming explained with its characteristics What is commercial farming? Types of commercial farming Characteristics of commercial farming Importance of forest: Forest reserves in Nigeria Wildlife reserves in Nigeria and its importance Prevention and Control of Crop Pests Economic Importance of Crop Pests Classification of Insect Pests and their Economic Importance Agricultural machines and their uses Causes of soil erosion Ways to prevent soil erosion Asexual Propagation in Plants, Types and Examples
Academic Questions in Agricultural Science
The ideal pH for the optimum growth of most agricultural crop is between _____.
A. 1 – 3.5
B. 4 – 5.5
C. 6 – 7.5
D. 8 – 9.5
E. 10 – 11.5
F. 12 – 13.5
People who go about their lives by raising and herding livestock such as cattle, sheep and goats are said to practice _____.
F. Anime Farming
The act of giving birth in pigs is called _____.
Which of the following is not a vegetable?
All plants are crops.
In agriculture, macronutrients are essential nutrients required by plants. Which of the following is not a macronutrient?
Which of the following is false concerning micronutrients?
A. They are non-essential nutrients
B. They are required by plants in minute quantities
C. Iron is a micronutrient
D. Chlorine is a micronutrient
E. Copper is a micronutrient
F. Boron is a micronutrient
_____ is a term that describes the biological, chemical and cultural control tactics employed to make pest management economical, environmentally friendly and socially acceptable.
A. Integrated Pest Management
B. Integral Pest Management
C. International Pest Management
D. Inclusive Pest Management
E. Imbibed Pest Management
F. Inclusion Pest Management
Gymnosperms and angiosperms are plants that produce seeds. Seed bearing plants are categorized as spermatophytes.
Gymnosperms are believed to have existed before the angiosperms. Presently, the angiosperms are more diversified and numerous in comparison to the gymnosperms.
Gymnosperms and angiosperms are siphonogamous plants. This means that they both produce pollen grains.
In this article, we will look at the reproductive differences between gymnosperms and angiosperms.
Below are the differences between gymnosperms and angiosperms:
Gymnosperms: Their reproductive structures are called cones.
Angiosperms: Flowers are the reproductive structures in angiosperms.
Gymnosperms: Cones are unisexual.
Angiosperms: Flowers are usually bisexual but a few can be unisexual.
Gymnosperms: The cones produces microspores and megaspores.
Angiosperms: The anther of the flower produces the microspore while the megaspores are produced by the ovules in the ovary.
Gymnosperms: Pollination is generally by wind.Angiosperms: Pollination requires different agents including, wind, water, insects and other animals.
Pollination refers to the process involving the transfer of pollen grains from the sexual parts of a plant.
The goal of pollination is to bring about fertilization. (That is, union of pollen grain and ova or egg cell).
Gymnosperms: The pollen grains will germinate on the micropyle of the ovules. This is termed direct pollination.
Angiosperms: The pollen grain germinates into the pollen tube on the stigma and the male gamete moves through this pollen tube; that is, 'indirect pollination'.
Gymnosperms: The fertilization process is not as complex as that of the angiosperms.
Angiosperms: The fertilization process is doubled. This means that two male gametes fuses with the embryo sac or female gametophyte.
Gymnosperms: The endosperm is haploid.
Angiosperms: The endosperm is triploid.
Note: It is the embryo that germinates when a seed is planted.
Gymnosperms: The ovule develop into naked seeds.
Angiosperms: The ovule develops into seeds enclosed in the fruit.
Gymnosperms: No fruits are present.
Angiosperms: The ovary becomes the fruit.
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Amazing facts in Agricultural Science
Cows technically have one stomach, not four. However, a cow's stomach has four compartments. These are: rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum
Peanuts are legumes and not nuts
Although plants neither see nor hear, they can recognize their siblings and even give them preferential treatments
Squirrels do plant more trees (through their actions) than an average human in their lifetime. They often hide their acorns and nuts underground and forget about them
Cows have got the ability to walk up stairs, but not down stairs
A group of cows is called a team, drove or herd.
People just prefer to call them herd
Notable points in Agricultural Science
Below are characteristics of gymnosperms:
Their seeds have cones that protect them.
Sepals and petals aren't present in their cones.
Stigma and style are absent.
They do not produce fruits. Only seeds are formed.
Companion cells are absent.
Sporophyll form the cones.
Anther and filament are absent.
The ovules are not present in the ovary.
Gymnosperms do not possess flowers.
The flower is the reproductive organ in plants' sexual reproduction. In order to achieve a successful sexual propagation or reproduction in plants, the floral parts of the flower are utilized.
The floral parts of a flower consists of the followings:
The stamen is male portion of a plant. It consists of the anther and filament.
The carpel (or pistil) is the female portion of the plant. It consists of the stigma, style and ovary.
An organism will be considered a pest if it does one of the followings:
Attack crops and eat its seeds, roots, stem, leaves and flowers. Examples are locust and grasshoppers.
Cause damage to stored food, fruits or other agricultural produce. Some may even urinate or deaficate on these products. Examples are rodents, cockroaches and mice.
Attack and kill farm animals like goats, sheep and cattle. Examples are foxes, wild cats and snakes.
Act as disease vectors. A vector is an organism that carries parasite and other disease causing organisms, without being affected; but when they introduce the parasites into their host, such host becomes infected with disease. Examples of vectors are rodents and mosquitoes.
Below are the classification of crops based on their uses:
Drug and Medicinal crops
Root and Tubers
All crops are plants but not all plants are crops. Below are some instances:
Weeds are considered as plants, not crops.
Parasitic plants are not necessarily crops. Examples of parasitic plants include mistletoe, corpse flower and striga.
Carnivorous or insectivorous plants are not necessarily crops. Examples are sundew, venus flytrap and pitcher plant. The image below shows a carnivorous plant (venus flytrap).
Meanwhile, always understand that all crops are plants, and they are grown for food, money or something beneficial.