Topics in BiologyImportance and limitations of ecological pyramid Protists explained with their characteristics Contents of the scrotum: Epididymis, vas deferens, spermatic cord and cremaster muscle Tropical savanna explained with its characteristics Concept of ecological pyramid Hindbrain: Medulla Oblongata and its features Food web explained with examples Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 2nd Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 3rd Term Male accessory sex organs: Seminal vesicles and bulbourethral glands Scrotum and its contents: Testicles Brain: Introduction to the human brain Forebrain: Lobes of the cerebrum and their functions Cerebellum: Parts and functions of the cerebellum Midbrain: Division and functions of the midbrain Negative feedback mechanism in homeostasis Arterial disorders explained with their causes Types of desert and their characteristics Characteristics of tropical rainforest
Academic Questions in Biology
From the above diagram, which of the organ below isn't a requirement for the male reproductive system?
C. Glans Penis
E. Bulbourethral Gland
A walnut shaped male accessory sex organ located between the bladder and penis is the _____.
A. Ductus Ejaculatorii
B. Bulbourethral Gland
C. Prostate Gland
D. Ductus Deferens
E. Seminal Vesicles
In a food chain, the primary consumers are classified under trophic level _____.
Cold blooded animals are referred to as _____.
F. None of the above
All reptiles are vertebrates.
_____ cells are responsible for the formation of osteoblasts.
_____ is a bone that constitute the axial skeleton.
Which of the following is false concerning cartilages and bones?
Arterial disorders refers to any clinical condition associated with the anatomy (structure) or physiology (function) of an artery. These clinical conditions will comprise of the following features or characteristics:
Compression: The arterial vessels become flat during compression.
Occlusion: This refers to the blockage of a vessel. In this instance, arterial vessels are blocked.
Tumors and Malformations: They are seen in blood vessels as unusual growths. This may lead to deformation of affected vessels.
Spasms: Narrowing of the blood vessels are refered to as spasms. Coronary artery spasm may lead to myocardial infarction, myocardial ischemia, arrhythmias, heart attack and in some cases, sudden death. Meanwhile, understand that the coronary artery supply blood to the muscles of the heart (myocardium).
Trauma: An arterial vessel may become traumatized after an injury.
The above clinical states may also be associated with venous disorders.
Please read on artery and it's layers here
Below are some conditions that are attributed to vascular disorders:
Arteriosclerosis typically occurs when there is an accumulation of cholesterol which eventually forms plaques in the wall of arteries. This is shown in the image below:
Cardiac arrest may result from atherosclerosis in the arteries of the heart. Similarly, stoke may result from arteriosclerosis around the arteries of the brain.
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This is the narrowing of the arteries. It may result from atherosclerosis and can also lead to heart attack and stroke, especially when the arteries around the heart and brain are involved.
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Cerebrovascular thrombosis is a major cause of stroke in humans. It occurs when a blood clot appears inside an artery that supplies blood to the brain.
Please read on red blood Ccells and hemoglobin here
Vasculitis occurs when there is an inflammation of one or more arteries. They usually result from hyper-activity of the immune system; and will often present some pigmentations around the affected skin. This is shown in the image below:
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This is synonymous to heart attack. It results when there is a sudden blood clot in one of the arteries that supplies blood to the heart.
Aneurysms refers to a weakness in the arterial wall. This weakness may be seen as a soft, painless swelling within the wall of the artery. This may also result into the formation of blood clots within the affected artery.
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In raynaud’s disease, the arteries around the finger region becomes narrower. As a result, the fingers may become whitish in color. This is shown in the image below:
Wounds around the fingers will heal slowly as a result of poor blood flow resulting from the narrowing of the arteries.
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Amazing facts in Biology
Platypus (sometimes referred to as the duck-billed platypus) is an egg-laying, semiaquatic mammal found in eastern Australia. It has no stomach and as such, its food goes from the mouth through the esophagus and directly to their intestines.
Pufferfish contain a toxin called tetrodotoxin. This makes them foul tasting and poisonous to predators. Tetrodotoxin is about 1,200 times more poisonous than cyanide, and there is enough toxin in one pufferfish to kill 30 adult humans. Unfortunately, there isn't any known antidote to this poison.
Interestingly, a delicacy in Japan (called fugu) is made from pufferfish. This meal is very expensive, and must be prepared by trained and licensed chefs. An improper preparation of fugu may lead to the customer's death. Sadly, such deaths are recorded annually
Wombats are the only animal with a cube-shaped poo. They can stack up these cube-shaped poo, marking their territory with it
Robert Wadlow (1918–1940) remains the tallest man ever recorded in the Guinness World Records. He was an American who stood at 8 feet, 11 inches.
An abnormally enlarged pituitary gland had resulted into Robert Wadlow's giant size.
Cockroach is the fastest land animal on six legs
Like humans, all apes laugh when tickled
An ostrich's eye is bigger than its brain
The upper front teeth are missing in giraffes. Meanwhile, like an adult human, a fully grown giraffe has 32 teeth but most are positioned at the back of their mouth
Slugs have four noses
Most insects hatch from egg but aphids give birth to their young alive
Notable points in Biology
An artery is composed of three layers:
The outermost layer is termed tunica adventitia (or tunica external). It consist mainly of collagen fibres and connective tissues that anchors the arteries to other nearby tissues.
The middle layer is named tunica media. It is made up of smooth muscles and elastic fibres that supports the artery in conveying blood at high pressures.
The inner layer is called tunica intima (or tunica internal). It is lined by a smooth tissue called endothelium, and is made up of a fine network of connective tissues.
All living organisms possess various features in order to survive in their environment. This is the concept of adaptation. As an instance, a fish is able to live in water because it has gills and fins.
Also, a camel is able to survive in the desert because it has large feet to aid walking on sand without sinking. It also has long eyelashes to help protect it from the blowing sand and wind.
Plants are also able to live in different habitats because they have the required adaptive features towards that habitat. For instance:
Plants that live in/on water are termed hydrophytes.
Plants that live on land with moderate amount of water are termed mesophytes.
Plants that live on deserts or arid lands are termed xerophytes.
The point is:
All organisms have various features on them that enables them adapt in their habitat
For a thing to be considered living, it must possess all the basic characteristics of life. These include:
Irritability or Sensitivity
Please read the explanations on all the basic characteristics of life here
During strenuous exercises like sprinting or running, your body may actually work in the shortage of oxygen. During this time, your body owes oxygen (called oxygen debt) and it must be replenished or repayed after the exercise is stopped. This is why you breathe excess of oxygen after you stopped the exercise.
This is the concept of anaerobic respiration
A food chain is a diagram that shows the relationship between plants and animals within a habitat on the basis of how they rely on each other for food.
Note: Habitat is a place where an organism live. It is of three types: