Biology

Arterial disorders explained with their causes

len Alfred Ajibola - Wed, 29th January, 2020 @ 10:02 PM

Topics in Biology

Contents of the scrotum: Epididymis, vas deferens, spermatic cord and cremaster muscle Tropical savanna explained with its characteristics Ecological pyramid explained with its importance and limitations Hindbrain: Medulla Oblongata and its features Food web explained with examples Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 2nd Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 3rd Term Male accessory sex organs: Seminal vesicles and bulbourethral glands Scrotum and its contents: Testicles Brain: Introduction to the human brain Forebrain: Lobes of the cerebrum and their functions Cerebellum: Parts and functions of the cerebellum Midbrain: Division and functions of the midbrain Negative feedback mechanism in homeostasis Arterial disorders explained with their causes Types of desert and their characteristics Characteristics of tropical rainforest Swamp forest: What are swamp forests? Characteristics of swamp forests


Academic Questions in Biology

Please click here to see all Questions and Answers

In a food chain, the primary consumers are classified under trophic level  _____.

  • A. Zero

  • B. One

  • C. Two

  • D. Three

  • E. Four

  • F. Five

Cold blooded animals are referred to as _____.

  • A. Homeotherms

  • B. Endotherms

  • C. Poilokitherms

  • D. Ectotherms

  • E. Thermotherms

  • F. None of the above

All reptiles are vertebrates.

  • A. True

  • B. False

_____ cells are responsible for the formation of osteoblasts.

  • A. Osteocytes
  • B. Chondrocytes
  • C. Chondroblasts
  • D. Osteoclasts
  • E. Osteoprogenitor cells
  • F. Osteoblastic

_____ is a bone that constitute the axial skeleton.

  • A. Clavicle
  • B. Scapula
  • C. Patella
  • D. Radius
  • E. Sternum
  • F. Femur

Which of the following is false concerning cartilages and bones?

  • A. Cartilage does not have a direct blood supply while bones have direct blood supply
  • B. The process of ossification replaces a cartilage to bone
  • C. The protein that makes up cartilage is called chondrin while that that makes up bone is called ossein
  • D. Cartilage grows from both ends while bones grow from one of its epiphysis
  • E. They both have living cells within them
  • F. Haversian system is absent in cartilage but present in bones

A diagram showing the movement of energy through a food chain is called a _____.

  • A. Food Chain
  • B. Food Web
  • C. Food Energy
  • D. Food Link
  • E. Food Flow
  • F. Food Pyramid

Which of the following is NOT a part of the wrist bones (or carpal bones)?

  • A. Cuboid
  • B. Scaphoid
  • C. Hamate
  • D. Triquetral
  • E. Pisiform
  • F. Trapezium


What are arterial disorders?

Arterial disorders refers to any clinical condition associated with the anatomy (structure) or physiology (function) of an artery. These clinical conditions will comprise of the following features or characteristics:

  1. Compression: The arterial vessels become flat during compression.

  2. Occlusion: This refers to the blockage of a vessel. In this instance, arterial vessels are blocked.

  3. Tumors and Malformations: They are seen in blood vessels as unusual growths. This may lead to deformation of affected vessels.

  4. Spasms: Narrowing of the blood vessels are refered to as spasms. Coronary artery spasm may lead to myocardial infarction, myocardial ischemia, arrhythmias, heart attack and in some cases, sudden death. Meanwhile, understand that the coronary artery supply blood to the muscles of the heart (myocardium).

  5. Trauma: An arterial vessel may become traumatized after an injury.

Note: The above clinical states may also be associated with venous disorders.

Please read on artery and it's layers here

 

Causes of arterial disorders

Below are some conditions that are attributed to vascular disorders:


1. Atherosclerosis

Arteriosclerosis typically occurs when there is an accumulation of cholesterol which eventually forms plaques in the wall of arteries. This is shown in the image below:

Arteriosclerosis - Len Academy

Cardiac arrest may result from atherosclerosis in the arteries of the heart. Similarly, stoke may result from arteriosclerosis around the arteries of the brain.

You can read on facts in biology here

 

2. Arterial Stenosis

This is the narrowing of the arteries. It may result from atherosclerosis and can also lead to heart attack and stroke, especially when the arteries around the heart and brain are involved.

You can read on the unique characteristics of man here

 

3. Cerebrovascular Thrombosis

Cerebrovascular thrombosis is a major cause of stroke in humans. It occurs when a blood clot appears inside an artery that supplies blood to the brain.

Please read on red blood Ccells and hemoglobin here

 

4. Vasculitis (Arteritis)

Vasculitis occurs when there is an inflammation of one or more arteries. They usually result from hyper-activity of the immune system; and will often present some pigmentations around the affected skin. This is shown in the image below:

Vasculitis - Len Academy

You can read on homeostasis here

 

5. Myocardial Infarction

This is synonymous to heart attack. It results when there is a sudden blood clot in one of the arteries that supplies blood to the heart.

 

6. Aneurysms

Aneurysms refers to a weakness in the arterial wall. This weakness may be seen as a soft, painless swelling within the wall of the artery. This may also result into the formation of blood clots within the affected artery.

You can read on the male reproductive system here

 

7. Raynaud’s disease

In raynaud’s disease, the arteries around the finger region becomes narrower. As a result, the fingers may become whitish in color. This is shown in the image below:

Raynaud's Disease - Len Academy

Wounds around the fingers will heal slowly as a result of poor blood flow resulting from the narrowing of the arteries.

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Amazing facts in Biology

Pufferfish - Len Academy

Pufferfish contain a toxin called tetrodotoxin. This makes them foul tasting and poisonous to predators. Tetrodotoxin is about 1,200 times more poisonous than cyanide, and there is enough toxin in one pufferfish to kill 30 adult humans. Unfortunately, there isn't any known antidote to this poison.

Interestingly, a delicacy in Japan (called fugu) is made from pufferfish. This meal is very expensive, and must be prepared by trained and licensed chefs. An improper preparation of fugu may lead to the customer's death. Sadly, such deaths are recorded annually

Wombat - Len Academy ​​​​​​

Wombats are the only animal with a cube-shaped poo. They can stack up these cube-shaped poo, marking their territory with it

Robert Waldow - Len Academy

Robert Wadlow (1918–1940) remains the tallest man ever recorded in the Guinness World Records. He was an American who stood at 8 feet, 11 inches.

An abnormally enlarged pituitary gland had resulted into Robert Wadlow's giant size.

Cockroach is the fastest land animal on six legs

Laughing ape - Len Academy

Like humans, all apes laugh when tickled

Ostrich eye and brain - Len Academy

An ostrich's eye is bigger than its brain

The upper front teeth are missing in giraffes. Meanwhile, like an adult human, a fully grown giraffe has 32 teeth but most are positioned at the back of their mouth

Slugs have four noses

Most insects hatch from egg but aphids give birth to their young alive

Bats aren't birds, rather, they are mammals. Infact, they are the second largest order of mammals after rodents. We have over 1,400 species of bat. Globally, they make up about 20% of all classified mammal species


NOTABLE POINTS IN Biology

For a thing to be considered living, it must possess all the basic characteristics of life. These include:

  1. Movement

  2. Respiration

  3. Nutrition

  4. Irritability or Sensitivity

  5. Growth

  6. Excretion

  7. Reproduction

  8. Death

  9. Adaptation

  10. Competition

Please read the explanations on all the basic characteristics of life here

During strenuous exercises like sprinting or running, your body may actually work in the shortage of oxygen. During this time, your body owes oxygen (called oxygen debt) and it must be replenished or repayed after the exercise is stopped. This is why you breathe excess of oxygen after you stopped the exercise.

This is the concept of anaerobic respiration

Food Chain - Len Academy

A food chain is a diagram that shows the relationship between plants and animals within a habitat on the basis of how they rely on each other for food.

Note: Habitat is a place where an organism live. It is of three types:

  • Terrestrial (Land)
  • Aquatic (Water)
  • Arboreal (Treetops)

You can read on food chain here

The term Biology originated from two Greek words. They are:

  • Bios: means life.

  • Logos: means knowledge or to study.

Biology can therefore be defined as the study of life

Anything that has life is generally considered as a living organism (or organism). All living organisms must be able to carry the following activities:

  1. Movement

  2. Respiration

  3. Nutrition

  4. Irritability or Sensitivity

  5. Growth

  6. Excretion

  7. Reproduction

  8. Death

  9. Adaptation

  10. Competition

The above listed points are often regarded as the basic characteristics of life. You can memorize them using the acronym -> MR. NIGER DAC.

You can read on the introduction to biology and the basic characteristics of life here

The gas used in the manufacture of food by plants is Carbon dioxide or Carbon(IV)oxide or CO2

Plants manufacture food through a process called photosynthesis.

Please read on photosynthesis here

It is noteworthy to state that plants are the only orgnisms that take away CO2 from the atmosphere