Topics in Agricultural ScienceLen Academy Agric Science exam questions, JSS1, First Term Len Academy Agric Science exam questions, JSS1, First Term, part 2 Agriculture Terms - Definitions and Meanings of Agricutural Terms (P - Q) Agricultural Terms: Definition and Meanings of Agricultural Terms (P and Q), part 2 Len Academy questions for Agric Science JSS1, 2nd Term Len Academy questions for Agric Science JSS1, 2nd Term, Part 2 Roles of Government in Agriculture Agricultural pest, Crops attacked, their economic importance and control Agriculture Terms - Definitions and Meanings of Agricutural Terms (I - O) Agricultural Land, Types, Purposes and Uses of Agricutural Land Characteristics and Differences between Gymnosperms and Angiosperms Plant Propagation, Methods of plant propagation Pests of Agricultural importance - Crop Pests and Crops Attacked Differences between a Plant and a Crop Problems of Agriculture in Nigeria Agricultural tools and their uses - Agricultural machines and their functions Soil Erosion, Types, Causes and Solutions to Soil Erosion Fish Business: How to start a home based fish farming Agriculture Terms - Definitions and Meanings of Agricutural Terms (Letter "A")
Academic Questions in Agricultural Science
The female part of the flower comprising the stigma, style and ovary is the _____.
Which of the following food is best preserved through pasteurization?
The total number of parasites that are present in a host organism is termed _____.
All plants are crops.
TRUE or FALSE
One of the ways through which life is naturally formed is via a process termed fertilization.
Think of fertilization as a process whereby a sperm meets an egg or ova, leading to the formation of a zygote.
In the case of a plant, it's the pollen grain that comes into contact with the ova; and a zygote is formed, giving rise to a seed.
Another method through which life can be formed is via regeneration. In some organisms, certain cells regenerate missing parts, creating an entire organism in the process. This is called totipotency.
Plant propagation is the branch of horticulture that involves the process of creating new plants.
These new plants may be created sexually or asexually.
Sexual propagation and Asexual propagation are thus the 2 methods of plant propagation.
The term sexual refers to any process involving the male gamete and the female gamete.
Think of the Gametes as sex cells; that is, sperm and ova/egg (or pollen grains and ova in the case of plants).
The flower is the reproductive organ in plants (sexual reproduction). In a plant's sexual propagation or reproduction, the floral parts of the flower are utilized.
The floral parts of a flower consists of the followings:
The stamen is male portion of a plant. It consists of the anther and filament.
The carpel or pistil is the female portion of the plant. It consists of the stigma, style and ovary.
Image Credit: Need Pix
A zygote is formed when the pollen grains from the anther of a flower is transferred to the stigma of a flower (of the same plant or another plant) by some agents like wind, water or animal leading to the eventual fertilization of the egg or ova. This process is termed pollination.
The seed is the product of sexual reproduction and it's composed of three parts:
- Outer seed coat: Protects the seed.
- Endosperm Serves as food reserve for the developing embryo.
- Embryo: Develops into the young plant.
A seed has it's own genotype. (Half of this genotype comes from the pollen grain and the remainder half from the egg/ova). Consequently, the resulting plant from such seed will possess characteristics from the parent plant(s).
Note: Some seeds are not produced sexually. A typical example is the hawkweed (Hieracium specie). It produces seed without sexual union through a process called apomixis. Seeds produced in this way are called apomictic seeds.
Certain bisexual flowers are self sterile. This means that whenever pollen grains from a flower is deposited on the stigma of the same flower, no fertilization will occur.
Think of a bisexual flower as one that contains the male reproductive organ (carpel) and the female reproductive organ (stamen or pistil).
In another type self sterile flowers, the male and female gamete mature at different times, making fertilization impossible.
It’s also referred to as vegetative propagation because a vegetative part of the plant (root, stem, or leaf) is taken and made to regenerate itself into a new plant.
The resulting plant in asexual propagation is a clone of the parent plant.
A clone is an offspring that is genetically identical to it’s parent.
Clone formation is the best way to retain some plant species, especially the best of their kinds.
Various techniques are used to bring about vegetative propagation (or plants' asexual reproduction). They include:
Grafting requires that a part of a plant is cut and joined to another rooted plant so that they can grow as one plant.
Image Credit: ThisnzLife
The scion is the branch of the cut plant (desired variety) that will be grafted to the other rooted plant. Such rooted plant is called the stock.
Note: Grafting is done on a stock plant, with a very strong root system.
Some methods of grafting include
- Wedge grafting
- Cleft grafting
- Tongue grafting
- Bark grafting
- Butt grafting
- Side grafting
Budding is a type of Grafting; in fact, It’s also called bud grafting.
The major difference in budding is the fact that part of the stock in which the scion is inserted is cut in T shape.
Image Credit: SlidePlayer
The scion is inserted into the "T shaped stock". The cut is then covered by winding a strip of polythene sheet, keeping only the bud exposed.
We have different types of budding; they are:
- Chip budding
- Patch budding
In cuttings, a part of the parent plant is severed (cut away). The severed part is planted after which it regenerates itself into a new plant.
Image Credit: Major Differences
Cuttings can be of different types depending on the part of plant severed. They include:
- Stem cuttings: e.g Mint and Dahlia
- Root cuttings: e.g breadfruit and White Poinsettia
- Leaf cuttings: e.g African violets and Kalanchoe
This technique of vegetative propagation is similar to stem cuttings. The difference is:
In normal stem cuttings, the stem (not having roots) are cut away from the parent plant before it's planted.
In layering, the stem is first allowed to develop roots. (These roots must be formed on the stem of the mother plant for layering to occur). Only after the formation of the root can we cut off the stem and plant it.
Image Credit: Q for Questions
Below are some types of layering:
- Air layering
- Mound (stool) layering
- Compound layering
- Tip layering
- Simple layering
Separation applies to plant that produce corms and bulbs.
Other techniques used in vegetative propagation or asexual reproduction are:
Stolons or Runners
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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.
Amazing facts in Agricultural Science
Although plants neither see nor hear, they can recognize their siblings and even give them preferential treatments 🤔
Squirrels do plant more 🌲 trees 🌲 (through their actions) than an average human in their lifetime. They often hide their acorns and nuts underground and forget about them 😁
🐄 Cows 🐄 have got the ability to walk up stairs, but not down stairs
A group of cows 🐄 🐄 🐄 is called a team, drove or herd.
People just prefer to call them herd
NOTABLE POINTS IN Agricultural Science
There are about 630 different kinds of carnivorous plants.
Carnivorous plants are plants that derive some or most of their nutrients by consuming small animals, especially insects.
Carnivorous plants are also referred to as insectivorous plants.
Some example of carnivorous plants include sundew and Venus flytrap.