Agricultural Science

Plant Propagation: Sexual Propagation in Plants

len Alfred Ajibola - Fri, 29th March, 2019 @ 18:42

Topics in Agricultural Science

Prevention and Control of Crop Pests Economic Importance of Crop Pests Classification of Insect Pests and their Economic Importance Agricultural Machines and their Uses Soil Erosion: Causes of Soil Erosion Ways to prevent Soil Erosion Asexual Propagation in Plants, Types and Examples Differences between Gymnosperms and Angiosperms Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, First Term Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, Second Term Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, Third Term Len Academy Agric Science exam questions, JSS1, First Term Len Academy Agric Science exam questions, JSS1, First Term, part 2 Agriculture Terms - Definitions and Meanings of Agricutural Terms (P - Q) Agricultural Terms: Definition and Meanings of Agricultural Terms (P and Q), part 2 Len Academy questions for Agric Science JSS1, 2nd Term Len Academy questions for Agric Science JSS1, 2nd Term, Part 2 Roles of Government in Agriculture Agricultural pest and Crops attacked Agriculture Terms - Definitions and Meanings of Agricutural Terms (I - O)


Academic Questions in Agricultural Science

Please check out our Test Your Knowledge page to see all Questions and Answers

Which of the following is an example of oil crop?

  • A. Melon

  • B. Rubber

  • C. Flax

  • D. Moringa

  • E. Ginger

  • F. Coffee

Concerning crops and plants, which of the following statement is incorrect?

  • A. All plants are not crops

  • B. All crops are plants

  • C. Cactus can be a crop

  • D. Corpse flower is not a plant

  • E. Venus flytrap is not a crop

  • F. All the options are correct

Which of the following is not a problem associated with agriculture?

  • A. Superfluous research facilities

  • B. Poor road network

  • C. Illiteracy

  • D. Lack of storage facilities

  • E. Limited mechanized farming

  • F. Bad government policies

Mallet - Len Academy

The above image is a _____.

  • A. Hammer

  • B. Crowbar

  • C. Shear

  • D. Secateur

  • E. Bolo

  • F. Mallet

Cutlass - Len Academy

The agricultural tool shown in the image (above) is used for the followings except _____.

  • A. For cutting tree branches, weeds, and other plant materials in farmland

  • B. To remove dirts from the top soil

  • C. For harvesting crops like sugarcane

  • D. To clear bushes

  • E. For planting crops like melon

  • F. To dig superficial holes for the planting of seeds

Which of the following statement is false concerning soil erosion?

  • A. The top soil is moved from one point to another

  • B. Man is an agent that bring about soil erosion

  • C. Wind and water are natural agents of soil erosion

  • D. Sheet erosion is said to occur when the surface of a land is eroded at an unequal levels

  • E. Deforestation will increase the likehood of wind erosion

  • F. Rill erosion results in the formation of miniature dongas on land

Gully erosion - Len Academy

The above diagram shows a _____ erosion.

  • A. Wind

  • B. Sheet

  • C. Rill

  • D. Gully

  • E. Landslide

  • F. Crooked

An instance of farming whereby a farmer uses animal and green manure as fertilizers in place of chemicals like NPK is termed _____.

  • A. Reformative farming

  • B. Alternative farming

  • C. Crude farming

  • D. Retrogressive farming

  • E. Non-Chemical farming

  • F. Agro-farming

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What is plant propagation?

One of the ways through which life is naturally formed is via a process termed fertilization.

Think of fertilization as a the fusion of sperm and egg or ova (with the exchange of genetic materials) leading to the formation of a zygote.

For fertilization to occur in plants, it's the pollen grain that comes into contact with the ova; and a zygote is formed, giving rise to a seed.

Note: Another method through which life may be formed is via a process termed regeneration. In some organisms, certain cells regenerate missing parts, creating an entire organism in the process. This is called totipotency.

Please read on the various Agricultural Terms and Meanings here.

Plant propagation is the branch of horticulture that involves the process of creating new plants.

Sexual propagation and Asexual propagation are the 2 methods of plant propagation.

In this article, we will discuss on sexual propagation (also called sexual reproduction) in plants.

 

Sexual Propagation in Plants

The term "sexual" refers to any process involving the male gamete and the female gamete.

Think of gametes as sex cells; that is, sperm and ova/egg (or pollen grains and ova in the case of plants).

Please read on the Male Reproductive System here.

The flower is the reproductive organ in plants' sexual reproduction. In order to yield a successful sexual propagation or reproduction in plants, the floral parts of the flower are utilized.

The floral parts of a flower consists of the followings:

  1. Sepals
  2. Petals
  3. Stamen
  4. Carpel

The stamen is male portion of a plant. It consists of the anther and filament.

The carpel (or pistil) is the female portion of the plant. It consists of the stigma, style and ovary.

The image below shows the floral parts of a flower:
Parts of a Flower - Len Academy

You can attempt LEN ACADEMY Examination Questions for Agric Science, JSS1, 2nd Term here.


A zygote is formed when the pollen grains from the anther of a flower is transferred to the stigma of a flower (of the same plant or another plant) by certain agents like wind, water or animal leading to the eventual fertilization of the egg or ova. This process is termed pollination.

The seed is the product of sexual reproduction and it's composed of three parts. These are:

  1. Outer seed coat: Functions to protect the seed.
  2. Endosperm: It serves as a source of food reserve for the developing embryo.
  3. Embryo: Develops into the young plant.

Please read on the Differences between Gymnosperms and Angiosperms here.

A seed has it's own genotype. Half of this genotype comes from the pollen grain and the other half from the egg/ova. Consequently, the resulting plant from such seed will possess characteristics from the parent plant(s).

Note: Some seeds are not produced sexually. A typical example is the hawkweed (Hieracium specie). It produces seed without sexual union through a process called apomixis. Seeds produced in this way are called apomictic seeds.

Certain bisexual flowers are self sterile. This means that whenever pollen grains from a flower is deposited on the stigma of the same flower (bisexual flower), no fertilization will occur.

Think of a bisexual flower as one that contains the male reproductive organ (carpel) and the female reproductive organ (stamen or pistil).

In another type self sterile flowers, the male and female gamete mature at different times, making fertilization impossible.

Please read on the Differences between a Plant and a Crop here.

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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.


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Amazing facts in Agricultural Science

🥜 Peanuts 🥜 are legumes and not nuts

Although plants neither see nor hear, they can recognize their siblings and even give them preferential treatments 🤔

Squirrels do plant more 🌲 trees 🌲 (through their actions) than an average human in their lifetime. They often hide their acorns and nuts underground and forget about them 😁

🐄 Cows 🐄 have got the ability to walk up stairs, but not down stairs

A group of cows 🐄 🐄 🐄  is called a team, drove or herd.

People just prefer to call them herd


NOTABLE POINTS IN Agricultural Science

Below are some common types of erosion:

  • Water Erosion: It is caused by rainfall and flooding on the topsoil. As a result of water erosion, some layers of the topsoil are lost.

  • Sheet Erosion: When an entire surface of land becomes eroded at a uniform (equal) level, such is referred to as sheet erosion.

    Sheet Erosion - Len Academy

  • Wind Erosion: It results from the actions of wind on a bare land. Wind erosion is often seen in deserts. Overgrazing and lack of vegetation cover will also enhance wind erosion on topsoil.

​​​Please read more on types of soil erosion here.

Soil erosion is defined as a process through which the topsoil is removed or moved from one point to another by agents like wind, water, man and animals.

Soil erosion occurs naturally (wind and water) and may also be facilitated by living organisms.

Soil erosion is more likely to occur on a sloppy land and land with no vegetation cover. When this occurs, the nutrient rich layer of the topsoil is washed away; and this ultimately results in fewer plants growing on such eroded soil.

Please read more on soil erosion here

There are about 630 different kinds of carnivorous plants.

Carnivorous plants are plants that derive some or most of their nutrients by consuming small animals, especially insects.

Carnivorous plants are also referred to as insectivorous plants.

Some example of carnivorous plants include sundew and Venus flytrap.

Please read more on Carnivorous Plants here