Topics in BiologyBiology Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 2nd Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 3rd Term Seminal Vesicles and Bulbourethral Glands as Male Accessory Sex Organs Male Reproductive System: Scrotum and its contents Brain: Introduction to the Human Brain Forebrain: Lobes of the Cerebrum and their Functions Cerebellum: Parts and Functions of the Cerebellum Midbrain: Division and Functions of the Midbrain Negative Feedback Mechanism in Homeostasis Arterial Disorders: Characteristics and Causes of Arterial Disorders Types of Desert and their Characteristics Characteristics of Tropical Rainforest Swamp Forest: What are Swamp Forests? Characteristics of Swamp Forests Savanna: Savanna and Grassland explained Savanna - Types of Savanna Tropical Savanna and Temperate Savanna with their Characteristics Introduction to Biomes: What is a Biome? Importance of Swamp Forests
Academic Questions in Biology
Which of the following is a category of long bones?
The end product of photosynthesis is _____.
The above diagram illustrates a _____.
The living cells that makes up cartilages are called _____.
Which of the following statement is incorrect with regards to chitin?
Which of the following is NOT a function of the human skeleton?
Organisms that manufacture their own food through the help of sunlight or chemicals are best referred to as _____.
Organisms that begins a food chain and also manufacture their food through photosynthesis are best referred to as _____.
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Reproduction is one of the basic characteristics of life. All living organisms have the ability to give birth to offspring (young of the same kind).
Reproduction can be defined as the process through which organisms give birth to their young (offspring) of the same kind.
Reproduction can be put into two types. These are:
In this article, we will focus our attention on the male reproductive system which is a requirement for sexual reproduction.
The male reproductive system consists of organs (called genitals) that are present both externally and internally.
Reproductive organs present on the outside of the body are generally referred to as external genitalia while those present inside the body are termed internal genitalia.
The Male External Genitalia include the followings:
The Male Internal Genitalia include the followings:
Note: The seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands (Cowper’s glands) are often referred to as accessory organs of reproduction in males.
(Please read on the Male Accessory Sex Organs here. It will give you a better understanding on the explanations below, especially with those relating to semen).
The penis is the copulatory and intromittent organ required for the male sexual act. It is the ideal organ for introducing sperm into the female’s vagina through a process called ejaculation.
Note: For ejaculation to occur, orgasm has to take place.
Orgasm is a series of contraction of the muscles present within the penis which ultimately lead to the release of semen.
This process of orgasm and ejaculation is often considered as the climax (or peak) of the male sexual act.
Below is a diagram of the Penis and its divisions:
Image Credit: Teach Me Anatomy
Anatomically (or structurally), the penis can be divided into three parts. These are:
1. Root of the Penis: This is the fixed part of the penis and it’s located within a male's body.
Note: The penis actually begins from within the body, directly below the bulbourethral organs at the pelvic floor.
The root of the penis is made up of two kinds of muscle. These are:
2. Body of the Penis: The penile body marks the beginning of the visible part of the penis as it extends from the root to the glans penis.
It is made up of three cylinders of erectile tissues which are two corpora cavernosa and one corpus spongiosum. They are shown below:
Note: Erection of the penis is a vascular process; that is, it results from the flow of blood into the corpora cavernosa and corpus spongiosum muscles respectively.
Lack of adequate blood flow to the penis will result to little or no erection. This condition is medically termed Erectile Dysfunction (ED) or Impotence.
The erectile tissues are highly vascular; that is, they can receive a good amount of blood supply. As a result, they play a significant part in the erection of the penis.
3. Glans of the Penis: Fondly called the glans penis, it is the expanded and rounded head of the penis. The glans penis contains an opening (called urethra) around its center.
At birth, the glans is covered by a fold of foreskin called the prepuce. This foreskin is connected by a soft tissue (called the frenulum) to the neck of the glans.
Often times, the foreskin is removed at birth through a process called circumcision. Parents who do not circumcise their children should clean their glans penis daily so as to prevent bacteria growth around that region.
The glans contains numerous touch receptors and as a result; it can be very sensitive to touch.
Note: Urine and Semen are released from the external urethral orifice; that is; the opening present at the tip of the glans.
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Amazing facts in Biology
Male Seahorses actually give birth to their young ones, NOT the female
All babies are born with blue eyes
Research made at the University of Vienna suggested that yawning may play an essential role in cooling the brains
All voluntary and concious activity of right handed people are controlled from the left part or hemisphere of the brain
A snail can actually sleep for 3 years 😁
An adult human being is composed of about 60% water. In fact, a newly born baby is composed of about 80% of water. This will drop to 65% after a year and finally to about 60% as the child ages
Without saliva, food can never be enjoyed. Food becomes tasteless since saliva is needed to dissolve the chemicals present in food onto the tongue’s taste buds.
Saliva also contains an enzyme called salivary amylase or "ptyalin" which helps to digest cooked starch to maltose. Maltose is a double sugar or disaccharide. Please read on sugars here
NOTABLE POINTS IN Biology
For a thing to be considered Living, it must possess all the Basic Characteristics of Life. These include:
Irritability or Sensitivity
During strenuous exercises like sprinting or 🏃 running, your body may actually work in the shortage of oxygen. During this time, your body owes oxygen (called oxygen debt) and it must be replenished or repayed after the exercise is stopped. This is why you breathe excess of oxygen after you stopped the exercise.
This is the concept of anaerobic respiration
A food Chain is a diagram that shows the relationship between plants and animals within a habitat on the basis of how they rely on each other for food.
Note: Habitat is a place where an organism live. It is of three types:
The term Biology originated from two Greek words. They are:
Biology can therefore be defined is the study of life
Anything that has life is generally considered as a living organism (or organism) 🌱🐐🐓. All living organisms must be able to carry the following activities:
The above listed points are often regarded as the basic characteristics of life. You can memorize them using the acronym (MR. NIGER DAC).
The gas used in the manufacture of food by plants is Carbon dioxide or Carbon(IV)oxide or CO2.
Plants manufacture food through a process called photosynthesis. Please read on photosynthesis here
Note: Plants are the only orgnisms that take away CO2 from the atmosphere