Topics in Basic SciencePrimates - Characteristics of Primates Effects of Improper Waste Management Waste Management: Causes of Waste Concept of Mass and Weight Sources, Functions and Deficiencies of Mineral Salts (Macro-nutrients) Sources, Functions and Deficiencies of Mineral Salts (Micro-nutrients) Len Academy questions for Basic Science JSS1, second Term Len Academy mid-term test questions for Basic Science JSS1, 2nd Term Micro organisms causing food, water and air borne Diseases Vectors - Examples of Vectors, Vector borne Organisms and the Diseases they cause Bones of the Human Skeleton Meaning of Drugs, Type of Drugs and Side effects of Drugs Immunization, Processes involved in immunization and its importance Food: Carbohydrates and Sugars Uniqueness of Man: Unique Characteristics of Man Waste Management: Types of Waste Matter: Concept of Matter Benefits and Importance of African Star Apple (Agbalumo or Udara)
Academic Questions in Basic Science
The ultimate source of energy is _____.
The speed of wind is measured with a wind vane.
TRUE or FALSE
The nutrient majorly found in the liver is _____.
A body at rest possess _____ energy.
The adult human skeleton is composed of 206 bones.
At birth, a baby has 300 bones. As the baby grows and develops, some of these bones fuses or joins together, giving a total of 206 bones afterwards.
Together, these 206 bones form a framework on which the body takes its shape.
This bony bodily framework that make up the body is termed as the skeleton.
The human skeleton is upright, giving human an upright appearance. In humans, it performs six main functions.
Below are all the bones that make up the human skeleton:
1. The bones of the head and face also referred to as the skull. It is made up of 22 bones. These are:
a. The cranium or Brain Box; which houses the brain and has a total of 8 bones. The bones are:
Image-Credit: Lumen Learning
b. The bones of the face; which is made up of 14 bones. These are:
Image-Credit: Slide Share
2. The Ears has 6 small Bones, 3 on each ear. All of these bones are present in the middle ear. They are:
3. The Throat has one bone named the hyiod bone
4. The Shoulder has 4 Bones, 2 on each side. These bones attach the arm or upper limbs to the body. They include:
Image-Credit: Slide Share
Note: Medial is an anatomical term that refers to any bodily part closer to the body's midline while the term lateral refers to the bodily part located away from the body's midline.
The manubrium is the upper part of the sternum. The sternum is the bone at the center of your chest. The sternum holds the ribs anteriorly.
The glenoid cavity of the scapular attaches to the round head of the humerus to form the glenohumeral joint; which happens to be the most flexible (and weakest) joint in the human body; permitting movement in 360o. This joint is a ball and socket joint.
Together, the scapular, lateral side of the clavicle and the upper part of the humerus forms the pectoral girdle.
5. The Thorax or Chest has 25 Bones
The thorax extends between the neck and the abdomen. A muscular sheet called the diaphragm separates the thorax from the abdomen.
The bones of the thorax protect the heart and the lungs.
Image-Credit: Earths Lab
The thoracic bones are:
The sternum also holds the clavicle (collar bone) in its upper part called the manubrium.
The sternum can be divided into 3 parts. These are:
Note: The ribs and sternum are important in the breathing process. Meanwhile, certain people may have an extra rib (13th rib).
The term anterior means in front while posterior means behind.
6. The Vertebral bones or vertebral column or spinal column are group of small bones found posterior and in the mid-line region of our body (back region).
Image-Credit: Spine Universe
Each vertebrae is joined together via a fibro elastic joint to form the vertebral column or spinal column.
These bones making up the vertebral column are 33 in numbers. They protect the spinal cord and serve as an attachment to the ribs posteriorly.
The vertebral bones include:
7. The Arm is the region extending from the shoulder joint to the elbow. It has 2 Bones. These are:
Two Humerus, one for each arm: This is the single long bone of each arm. It connects from the scapula joint to the elbow joint.
8. The Forearm is the region between the elbow and the wrist. It has 4 Bones. The bones are:
Note:The ulna and radius are both prismatic in shape.
9. The hand is the region between the wrist and the tip of the fingers. It is made up of 54 bones.
a. 16 carpal bones, also called the wrist bones; 8 for each hand.
The 16 carpal bones are small irregularly shaped bones found in the wrist and arranged in two rows of four bones each. They are:
b. 10 Metacarpal Bones, 5 on each hand.
The metacarpals are the bones of the palms and they lie between the wrist and anterior end of the finger bones; (or between the tarsal bones and the phalanges)
c. 28 finger Bones or Phalanges. You can observe these bones by looking at your fingers.
Three are present in each finger except for the thumb which has only two.
Each of these bones is separated by joints. You can observe these joints by making a fist.
The phalanges include:
10. The Pelvic or Hip has 2 bones
The pelvis comprise of 2 Coxal or Innominate or Hip bones. Both hip bones fuse at the middle to form the pelvis or pelvic girdle.
Each pelvic bone can be divided into 3 parts. These are:
11. The Thigh is the region between the hip and the knee. It is made up of 2 bones.
Two Femur bones (one for each thigh) The femur is the longest and strongest bone in the human body. It’s also referred to as the thigh bone.
12. The Leg is the region between the knee and the ankle. It comprises of 4 bones, 2 for each leg:
13. Present in the knee joint are 2 patella bones.
14. The bone that make up the foot. They are 52 in numbers. They include:
a. The tarsal bones also called the ankle bones: It comprises of 14 small bones. These are:
b. 10 Metatarsal Bones, 5 on each foot.
The metatarsal bones lie between the ankle and the anterior end of the toe bones.
c. 28 Phalanges or Toe Bones. These bones are put into the followings:
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Amazing facts in Basic Science
Rasceta is the name given to the lines on your ✋ palm ✋
Goats have rectangular pupils in their eyes.
Think of the pupil as a hole located in the centre of the iris of the eye.
Note: To get an idea of an iris; when one is said to have blue eyes, it's because the iris is blue
Among all land animals, 🐘 Elephants 🐘 have the longest gestation period.
They stay pregnant for 22 months before giving birth to their young
🦘 Kangaroos 🦘 can't walk backwards
The 🥛 milk 🥛 of an 🦛 hippopotamus 🦛 is pink in color
The seed of all fruits are present on the inside with the exception of one.
That exception is 🍓 strawberry 🍓
🍓 strawberry 🍓 has it's seed outside the fruit
It actually takes 🍍 pineapples 🍍 2 years to grow
The liquid inside a coconut 🥥 can be used as an excellent substitute for your blood plasma
Elephants can't jump
NOTABLE POINTS IN Basic Science
The eyebrow is an area of dense, delicate hair just above the eye.
Eyebrows perform two main functions:
Eyebrow modified in the form of Nike.
Image Credit: Unilad
Note: Eyebrows can also be modified to enhance beauty; especially female beauty.
All fruits have seeds. There is nothing like a naturally occurring seedless fruit. Even banana, coconut and pineapple have all got seeds.
Weight can be defined as the force of gravity acting on an object. If you traveled to space, you would be weightless because there isn't any force of gravity acting there. We all have weight on earth becasue the force of gravity acts here. Weight is measured in Newton
Massis the amount or quantity of matter/material contained in a body, For instance, everything you are composed of, both from within and outside will make up your mass. Mass is constant throughout the universe. You will have the same mass on earth and moon. Mass is measured in gram or kilogram. Mass is quite different from weight.
Matter is anything that has mass and occupy space. Matter can exist in four states namely: