Topics in BiologyTropical savanna explained with its characteristics Ecological pyramid explained with its importance and limitations Hindbrain: Medulla Oblongata and its features Food web explained with examples Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 2nd Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 3rd Term Male accessory sex organs: Seminal vesicles and bulbourethral glands Scrotum and its contents: Testicles Brain: Introduction to the human brain Forebrain: Lobes of the cerebrum and their functions Cerebellum: Parts and functions of the cerebellum Midbrain: Division and functions of the midbrain Negative feedback mechanism in homeostasis Arterial disorders explained with their causes Types of desert and their characteristics Characteristics of tropical rainforest Swamp forest: What are swamp forests? Characteristics of swamp forests Savanna biome: Concept of the savanna
Academic Questions in Biology
In a food chain, the primary consumers are classified under trophic level _____.
Cold blooded animals are referred to as _____.
F. None of the above
All reptiles are vertebrates.
_____ cells are responsible for the formation of osteoblasts.
_____ is a bone that constitute the axial skeleton.
Which of the following is false concerning cartilages and bones?
A diagram showing the movement of energy through a food chain is called a _____.
Which of the following is NOT a part of the wrist bones (or carpal bones)?
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The bone is the major skeletal material present in the skeleton of vertebrates.
A fully formed bone is composed of living cells called osteocytes
The osteocytes are organic in nature.
The bone cells (osteocytes) are fortified or made strong by minerals (which are inorganic), especially hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate.
Note: Hydroxyapatite is formed from calcium phosphate.
It is important to state that collagen fibres are also present as a component of bone.
The mineral component of the bone cells are non-living and they account for about two third (2/3) of the mass of the bone. For this reason, a bone is much stronger and rigid than a cartilage (as a result of their high mineral content).
Note: Calcification of bones will only occur when collagen fibres are present.
Calcification is the process whereby mineral salts (hydroxyapatite) are deposited on the collagen fiber. This process crystallizes and hardens the bone tissue.
In general, we have 4 types of the cells that make up bones. These are:
1. Osteoblasts: These bone cells are responsible for bone formation. They secrete both the organic and inorganic components of the bone.
2. Osteocytes: These are matured bone cells and do not undergo division. They maintain the bone’s structure by recycling the mineral component of bone matrix.
The osteocytes are the living tissues in bone and they make up about one third (1/3) of the mass of a matured bone.
3. Osteoclasts: They are large bone cells that function to dissolve (remove) the bone structure.
Osteoclasts release lysosomal enzymes and acids on the bone matrix in order to bring about their dissolution effect.
Through the above process, calcium and phosphate minerals are released into the blood and body fluids so as to increase their concentrations.
This aformentioned process is important in certain physiological conditions.
4. Osteoprogenitor cells: They are responsible for the formation of osteoblasts which makes them important for the repair of broken bones or fractures. (Please see Osteoblasts as explained above).
Ossification is the natural process that leads to the formation of bone by osteoblasts.
Another term for ossification is osteogenesis.
Note: Osteoporosis is a medical condition whereby bones become fragile, soft and brittle as a result from the loss of bone cells (osteocytes). The loss of bone cells in osteoporosis typically results from hormonal inbalance, deficiency of calcium in diet or a lack of vitamin D.
Similarly, osteomalacia is simply the softening of bones resulting from a lack of calcium or vitamin D in diet.
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Amazing facts in Biology
99% of a panda's diet is bamboo. They may eat fish or other small animals occasionally
When attacked by insects, lima beans plant will often command parasitic wasps to their defence.
When the leaves of the lima bean's leaves are eaten by insects, the plant gives off a substance that signals parasitic wasps to swam in, destroying its enemies (the leaf-eating insects) in the process
Frogs drink water through their skin
Armadillos are western mammals known for their unique armor-like shell which are bulletproof
Although zebras are known for their characteristics black and white stripes, we still have some polka-dotted zebras
Charles Darwin is a British naturalist and biologist who contributed greatly into the study of evolution. According to research, he frequently ate the animals he studied
Lungs are the only human organ that can float on water
Unlike most snakes that lay eggs, anacondas give birth to live babies
A shrimp's heart is in its head
Women have more pain receptors than men
NOTABLE POINTS IN Biology
For a thing to be considered living, it must possess all the basic characteristics of life. These include:
Irritability or Sensitivity
During strenuous exercises like sprinting or running, your body may actually work in the shortage of oxygen. During this time, your body owes oxygen (called oxygen debt) and it must be replenished or repayed after the exercise is stopped. This is why you breathe excess of oxygen after you stopped the exercise.
This is the concept of anaerobic respiration
A food chain is a diagram that shows the relationship between plants and animals within a habitat on the basis of how they rely on each other for food.
Note: Habitat is a place where an organism live. It is of three types:
The term Biology originated from two Greek words. They are:
Bios: means life.
Logos: means knowledge or to study.
Biology can therefore be defined as the study of life
Anything that has life is generally considered as a living organism (or organism). All living organisms must be able to carry the following activities:
Irritability or Sensitivity
The above listed points are often regarded as the basic characteristics of life. You can memorize them using the acronym -> MR. NIGER DAC.
The gas used in the manufacture of food by plants is Carbon dioxide or Carbon(IV)oxide or CO2
Plants manufacture food through a process called photosynthesis.
It is noteworthy to state that plants are the only orgnisms that take away CO2 from the atmosphere