Topics in BiologyFood web explained with examples Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 2nd Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 3rd Term Seminal Vesicles and Bulbourethral Glands as Male Accessory Sex Organs Male Reproductive System: Scrotum and its contents Brain: Introduction to the Human Brain Forebrain: Lobes of the Cerebrum and their Functions Cerebellum: Parts and Functions of the Cerebellum Midbrain: Division and Functions of the Midbrain Negative Feedback Mechanism in Homeostasis Arterial Disorders: Characteristics and Causes of Arterial Disorders Types of Desert and their Characteristics Characteristics of Tropical Rainforest Swamp Forest: What are Swamp Forests? Characteristics of Swamp Forests Savanna: Savanna and Grassland explained Savanna - Types of Savanna Tropical Savanna and Temperate Savanna with their Characteristics Introduction to Biomes: What is a Biome?
Academic Questions in Biology
The final organisms in a food chain are best referred to as _____.
E. tertiary consumers
F. quatenary consumers
Which of the following is a category of long bones?
The end product of photosynthesis is _____.
The above diagram illustrates a _____.
The living cells that makes up cartilages are called _____.
Which of the following statement is incorrect with regards to chitin?
Which of the following is NOT a function of the human skeleton?
Organisms that manufacture their own food through the help of sunlight or chemicals are best referred to as _____.
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The bone is the major skeletal material present in the skeleton of vertebrates.
A fully formed bone is composed of living cells called osteocytes
The osteocytes are organic in nature.
The bone cells (osteocytes) are fortified or made strong by minerals (which are inorganic), especially hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate.
Note: Hydroxyapatite is formed from calcium phosphate.
It is important to state that collagen fibres are also present as a component of bone.
The mineral component of the bone cells are non-living and they account for about two third (2/3) of the mass of the bone. For this reason, a bone is much stronger and rigid than a cartilage (as a result of their high mineral content).
Note: Calcification of bones will only occur when collagen fibres are present.
Calcification is the process whereby mineral salts (hydroxyapatite) are deposited on the collagen fiber. This process crystallizes and hardens the bone tissue.
In general, we have 4 types of the cells that make up bones. These are:
1. Osteoblasts: These bone cells are responsible for bone formation. They secrete both the organic and inorganic components of the bone.
2. Osteocytes: These are matured bone cells and do not undergo division. They maintain the bone’s structure by recycling the mineral component of bone matrix.
The osteocytes are the living tissues in bone and they make up about one third (1/3) of the mass of a matured bone.
3. Osteoclasts: They are large bone cells that function to dissolve (remove) the bone structure.
Osteoclasts release lysosomal enzymes and acids on the bone matrix in order to bring about their dissolution effect.
Through the above process, calcium and phosphate minerals are released into the blood and body fluids so as to increase their concentrations.
This aformentioned process is important in certain physiological conditions.
4. Osteoprogenitor cells: They are responsible for the formation of osteoblasts which makes them important for the repair of broken bones or fractures. (Please see Osteoblasts as explained above).
Ossification is the natural process that leads to the formation of bone by osteoblasts.
Another term for ossification is osteogenesis.
Note: Osteoporosis is a medical condition whereby bones become fragile, soft and brittle as a result from the loss of bone cells (osteocytes). The loss of bone cells in osteoporosis typically results from hormonal inbalance, deficiency of calcium in diet or a lack of vitamin D.
Similarly, osteomalacia is simply the softening of bones resulting from a lack of calcium or vitamin D in diet.
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Amazing facts in Biology
Male Seahorses actually give birth to their young ones, NOT the female
All babies are born with blue eyes
Research made at the University of Vienna suggested that yawning may play an essential role in cooling the brains
All voluntary and concious activity of right handed people are controlled from the left part or hemisphere of the brain
A snail can actually sleep for 3 years 😁
An adult human being is composed of about 60% water. In fact, a newly born baby is composed of about 80% of water. This will drop to 65% after a year and finally to about 60% as the child ages
Without saliva, food can never be enjoyed. Food becomes tasteless since saliva is needed to dissolve the chemicals present in food onto the tongue’s taste buds.
Saliva also contains an enzyme called salivary amylase or "ptyalin" which helps to digest cooked starch to maltose. Maltose is a double sugar or disaccharide. Please read on sugars here
NOTABLE POINTS IN Biology
For a thing to be considered Living, it must possess all the Basic Characteristics of Life. These include:
Irritability or Sensitivity
During strenuous exercises like sprinting or 🏃 running, your body may actually work in the shortage of oxygen. During this time, your body owes oxygen (called oxygen debt) and it must be replenished or repayed after the exercise is stopped. This is why you breathe excess of oxygen after you stopped the exercise.
This is the concept of anaerobic respiration
A food Chain is a diagram that shows the relationship between plants and animals within a habitat on the basis of how they rely on each other for food.
Note: Habitat is a place where an organism live. It is of three types:
The term Biology originated from two Greek words. They are:
Biology can therefore be defined is the study of life
Anything that has life is generally considered as a living organism (or organism) 🌱🐐🐓. All living organisms must be able to carry the following activities:
The above listed points are often regarded as the basic characteristics of life. You can memorize them using the acronym (MR. NIGER DAC).
The gas used in the manufacture of food by plants is Carbon dioxide or Carbon(IV)oxide or CO2.
Plants manufacture food through a process called photosynthesis. Please read on photosynthesis here
Note: Plants are the only orgnisms that take away CO2 from the atmosphere