Topics in Basic ScienceLen Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS2, 2nd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 3rd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 2nd Term Primates - Characteristics of Primates Effects of Improper Waste Management Waste Management: Causes of Waste Concept of Mass and Weight Sources, Functions and Deficiencies of Mineral Salts (Macro-nutrients) Sources, Functions and Deficiencies of Mineral Salts (Micro-nutrients) Len Academy questions for Basic Science JSS1, second Term Len Academy mid-term test questions for Basic Science JSS1, 2nd Term Micro organisms causing food, water and air borne Diseases Vectors - Examples of Vectors, Vector borne Organisms and the Diseases they cause Bones of the Human Skeleton Meaning of Drugs, Type of Drugs and Side effects of Drugs Immunization, Processes involved in immunization and its importance Food: Carbohydrates and Sugars Uniqueness of Man: Unique Characteristics of Man Waste Management: Types of Waste Matter: Concept of Matter
Academic Questions in Basic Science
Brachiation is a specialized form of movement exhibited by _____.
A. Human beings
_____ is a form of locomotion whereby an organism move by means of its two hind limbs.
B. Duo Pedalism
C. Double Pedalism
D. Dual Pedalism
The human brain is folded into gyri, grooved into sulci and also the most developed among all organisms in the universe.
According to science, all human beings are animals.
Biomedic wastes are also referred to as _____ wastes.
Sweat and urine are best considered as _____ waste.
_____ is defined as the process of collecting, processing, recycling and controlling any material considered as waste.
A. Waste collecting and processing
B. Waste processing and collecting
C. Waste recycling and control
D. Waste control and recycling
E. Waste treatment
F. Waste Management
Which of the following statement is FALSE concerning mass and weight?
A. Mass is the amount of matter in a body
B. The element hydrogen has the smallest mass
C. You will weigh more on planet jupiter than earth
D. Weight is a function of gravity
E. Mass and Weight have different Standard International (S.I) Units
F. None of the above
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Having a good understanding of matter will aid you to better understand Chemistry and Physics.
Matter is defined as anything that has mass and occupy space.
From the above definition, we can conclude that matter has two main attributes, qualities or characteristics. These are:
Mass is the amount of matter you have or anything has. You may consider it to be the entire composition of anything. For instance, everything you are composed of (from the top of your hair to your toe nails, including all your internal organs) will account for your mass. For this reason, your mass would be significantly different from that of a newly born child.
Note: To accurately account for the mass of humans, we will have to wear nothing on our body. This is so because our clothes, shoes and accessories will add to our mass since each of these is considered as a separate matter from our body. (That is, each has its own mass and occupies space).
Mass is not the same thing as weight.
Note: You can also think of mass as the total composition of anything, both within (inside) and without (outside).
Using a cup of rice as an instance, its ideal mass will be attributed to all its entire composition; both within (rice) and without (cup).
Matter will always take up space no matter how small it is. This is true because some instances of matter can be microscopic (only be seen with the aid of a microscope). Viruses, bacteria and protists are examples of microscopic matter in this case.
Regardless how small a thing is (to the human eyes), they will still (always) occupy space. This is why the atmosphere is never empty; rather it's always filled with gases, bacteria, pathogens and other tiny particles.
According to scientific research, there are approximately 100 billion bacteria on the human body. Although we can't even see any of these, they still take up (occupy) spaces on our skin.
Note: A space completely void of matter is referred to as a vacuum. Vacuum environment do not exist naturally, rather they are prepared for medical and scientific reasons.
The point is:
Matter is everything around you, both the things you can see and those you can't see with your eyes. In fact, you are matter yourself. No matter how small a thing can be (even if they are microscopic and can't be seen with the naked eyes), they will still always have mass and occupy space.
Matter exists in four states. They are:
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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.
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Amazing facts in Basic Science
🍅 Tomatoes 🍅 and 🥑 Avocados 🥑 are actually fruits, not vegetables
Sweat in itself doesn't smell. The smell that accompanies sweat is actually caused by the presence of bacteria on your skin. This bacteria breaks the sweat coming out of your sweat pores down into acids, thus making it smell.
Deodorants contains alcohol and are antibacterial. They work by killing the bacteria that makes sweat smell
Chewing aspirin during a heart attack may be a life saver. This is true because the drug inhibits platelets from forming a clot that can block an artery of the heart, thus stopping a heart attack
The kneecaps of newly born babies are not made of bone. Rather, they are little bits of cartilage which ossifies (turns from cartilages to bone) from age 2 to 6
Ice cubes made with fresh water are white in color while those made with boiled water are crystal clear
🐈 Cats 🐈 are unable to taste sweet things
🍎 Apples 🍎 actually float on water. Other fruits that float on water include 🍋 lemons, 🍌 bananas, 🍐 pears, and 🍊 oranges
Rain water contains vitamin B12.
Vitamin B12 is an important nutrient that keeps the blood cells and neurones healthy. It also assist in building the DNA (a genetic material present in the cell's nucleus). Vitamin B12 also aid in the prevention of megaloblastic anemia which makes people weak and tired
Rasceta is the name given to the lines on your ✋ palm ✋
Goats have rectangular pupils in their eyes.
Think of the pupil as a hole located in the centre of the iris within of the eye.
Note: To get an idea of an iris; 'when one is said to have blue eyes', it's because the iris is blue
NOTABLE POINTS IN Basic Science
Waste Management can be defined as the process of collecting, processing, recycling and controlling any material considered as waste.
Improperly disposed waste litters on road sides, in land fills, gutters and ditches. They are generally bad for the following reasons:
The waste block drainages hence resulting to flooding, especially during the rainy seasons.
Please read on Erosion here.
They generate bad smells which can be dangerous to health.
They constitute nuisance and eyesore.
They become homes to various disease causing organisms.
Please read on Vectors of Diseases here.
Wastes can be classified into various types. These are:
Animal product waste
The African Star Apple is a seasonal fruit that grows abundantly in Nigeria and other West African Countries. It's fondly called African Cherry, Agbalumo or Udara in some parts of Nigeria.
Below are some benefits of the African Star Apple:
It contains high amount of vitamin C
It contains a high amount of calcium
It contains high amount of potassium
It is a powerful antioxidant
It aids in weight reduction
It contains a high amount of iron
Its leaves, fruits and seeds are medicinal
It aids digestion and prevents vomiting
Disaccharides are composed of two monosaccharides joined together; thus are also referred to as double sugars.
Disaccharides are often added as sweeteners to food; for instance, the table sugar called sucrose is a disaccharide often used by us to sweeten our tea.
Maltose is another disaccharide used as an ingredient for making malt drinks, chocolates and candies.
The breast milk contains the disaccharide Lactose.
Lactose is very vital for the normal growth and development of infants.
In adults, disaccharides are non essential nutrients. This implies that we can live without them as adults.
Below is a summary of monosaccharides that make up disaccharides (double sugars).
Maltose = Glucose + Glucose
Lactose = Glucose + Galactose
Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose
Other examples of disaccharides include trehalulose and isomaltulose
Polysaccharides are complex sugars. These are what we often eat whenever we eat carbohydrates.
We have four types of polysaccharides namely:
Starchy foods include rice, cassava and yam.
Glycogen is stored in the human liver; as a result of the joining of many glucose molecules.
Chitin is a major component of insect and anthropod's skeleton.
Cellulose is a major component of a plant's cell wall. They cannot be digested when eaten by humans; hence they function as roughages.
Roughages are not classified as one the classes of food in humans. This is due to the fact that they aren't digested. They will rather facilitate the movement of bowels in the large intestine (colon); and for this reason, they can be very useful in treating constipation.