English

Clause and Types of Clause explained

len Alfred Ajibola - Thu, 27th February, 2020 @ 16:29: PM

Topics in English

Phrase: Types of Phrase Clause and Types of Clause explained Essay: How to write the major types of essay Nouns, Adjectives and Examples of Nouns formed from Adjectives Homonyms - Meaning and Examples of Homonyms Idioms and Examples of Idioms Synonyms: Meaning and Examples of Synonyms Figures of Speech: Meaning, Examples and Types of Figure of Speech Relative pronouns and compound relative pronouns explained with examples Transitive and Intransitive Verbs explained with Examples Phrase explained with examples Essay: Formal, Semi-Formal and Informal Essays explained


Academic Questions in English

Please check out our Test Your Knowledge page to see all Questions and Answers

The acronym Wi-Fi stands for _____.

  • A. Wireless Files

  • B. Wireless Flips

  • C. Wireless Fidelity

  • D. Wireless Freedom

  • E. Wireless and Free

  • F. Wireless Fun

The words massacre and bloodbath are _____.

  • A. Antonyms

  • B. Synonyms

  • C. Homonyms

  • D. Homophones

  • E. Heteronyms

  • F. Heterophone

_____ are words or a phrases or expressions that have an exact or closely related meaning with another word or phrase or expression

  • A. Antonyms

  • B. Synonyms

  • C. Homonyms

  • D. Homophones

  • E. Heteronyms

  • F. Heterophones

A figure of speech that shows a balanced expression written in a reverse order is the _____.

  • A. Oxymoron

  • B. Hyperbole

  • C. Onomatopoeia

  • D. Synecdoche

  • E. Anaphora

  • F. Chiasmus

The little giant is here

The figure of speech used in the above instance is _____.

  • A. Oxymoron

  • B. Hyperbole

  • C. Onomatopoeia

  • D. Synecdoche

  • E. Anaphora

  • F. Chiasmus

_____ is a figure of speech that uses two main words 'as and 'like' as a source of comparison between two things that normally do not have anything in common.

  • A. Metaphor

  • B. Irony

  • C. Simile

  • D. Oxymoron

  • E. Personification

  • F. Hyperbole

Tell whoever may ask that I am not interested

Whoever as used in the above sentence is a _____.

  • A. Simple relative pronoun

  • B. Compound relative pronoun

  • C. Complex relative pronoun

  • D. Complicated relative pronoun

  • E. Universal relative pronoun

  • F. Base relative pronoun

Which of the following statement is incorrect concerning relative pronouns?

  • A. They refer to a noun that had been previously mentioned

  • B. They introduce relative clauses

  • C. They can function as an object in a sentence

  • D. They can function as a partial noun in a sentence

  • E. They can function as a possessive pronoun in a sentence

  • F. They can function as a subject in a sentence

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What is a Clause?

A clause is a grammatical term referring to a group of words containing a subject and a verb. The words comprising a clause may (or may not) make up a complete grammatical sentence.

Note: The subject is an entity that forms the first part of a sentence. It always performs an action. The verb is the action performed by the subject.

The instances below shows the subject and verb in a sentence:

  1. I ate rice and beans. ('I' is the subject and 'ate', the verb.
  2. She danced. ('She' is the subject and 'danced', the verb.
  3. We all laughed. ('We' is the subject and 'laughed', the verb.
    Please read on Transitive and Intransitive Verbs explained with examples here.

A clause may include the verb predicate. Think of a predicate as the second part of a sentence that tells us something about the subject; (the subject is the first part of a sentence). The predicate always begin with a verb.

Below are some examples that shows the predicate (underlined) and the verb predicate (written in color green):


Types of Clause

Depending on the type of clause, a clause may or may not create a complete meaning. In order words, a clause can be independent or dependent.

Once again, it is important to state that a clause must contain a subject and a verb, regardless whether it's independent or dependent.


1. Independent Clause

As the name implies, an independent clause will always stand alone and must contain at least, a subject and a verb (or a verb predicate). They are also referred to as the main clause.

The components of an independent clause are shown below:

Independent Clause = Subject + Verb

Independent Clause = Subject + Verb Predicate

An important point to note is the fact that grammatically correct sentences must consist of at least, one main (or independent) clause.

Below are examples of an independent clause in a sentence:

Notice that the above examples contains a subject and a verb. They are all grammatically correct and do not necessarily require an additional clause to make a complete sentence; (although the second example began with an additional clause -> 'at the party').


2. Dependent Clause

They contain a subject and verb. However, they don't stand alone and cannot make complete sense.

As the name implies, a dependent clause will always depend on the main clause. In fact, a dependent clause must be joined to an independent clause for a sentence to become grammatically correct.

Note: A dependent clause is also referred to as a subordinate clause.

Importantly, subordinate clauses may be introduced by relative pronouns like 'who, whom, that, which, what, whose, whomever, whatever and whichever'. Similarly, they may also be introduced through subordinating conjunctions like 'until, although, because, if, with, after, since, unless, even, through and when'.
Please read more on Relative Pronouns and Compound Relative Pronouns here.

Below are examples of dependent clauses:

  • Before I go to work
  • Whenever I ask the question

From the above examples, the dependent clauses do not make a complete sentence. They will therefore require an independent clause to make a complete thought.

In the examples below, the dependent clause had been added to an independent clause (underlined):

  • Before I go to work, I say a prayer.
  • Whenever I ask the question, Alfred replies.

Other examples of dependent clauses include:

Notice that the above dependent clauses are all introduced by relative pronouns and subordinate conjunctions.

Note: Dependent clauses does not make a complete sentence; rather they function in sentences as adjectives, nouns, and adverbs, thus giving rise to other types of clauses. These are:

 

3. Noun or Nominal Clause

A nominal clause contains a subject and a verb while also acting as a noun in a sentence. On it's own, it cannot make a complete sentence. For example:

  • I know what he is attempting to do.

Notice that the noun or nominal clause 'what he is attempting to do' is a noun because it refers to a person.

A nominal clause will always be traced to a person, animal, place or thing.

Please read on Nouns formed from Adjectives here.

Other examples of nominal clauses are underlined in the sentences below:


4. Adverbial Clause

Adverbial clause acts as an adverb in a sentence. Although they contain a subject and a verb, they cannot stand alone as a complete thought. An instance is shown below:

  • They left for Abuja after the seminar was over.

Notice that the adverbial clause 'after the seminar was over' gives more detail to the verb 'left'.

It is the function of an adverbial clause to give more information about a verb.

You can read on the Types of Essay explained here.

Below are other examples of adverbial clauses:

  • The lazy student cheated until he was caught.
  • The young man was heard even without a microphone.
  • The centre back scored through a powerful header.

5. Adjectival or Relative Clause

Adjectival clause acts as an adjective in a sentence. It contains a subject and a verb but cannot stand alone as a complete sentence. Below is an example:

  • The young man, who gave you sweets yesterday, is my brother.

Notice that the Adjectival clause 'who gave you sweets yesterday' gives more detail about the young man.

It is the function of an adjectival (or relative clause) to give describe a noun. This means that it gives more information about a noun.

You can read on Figures of Speech here.

Other examples of adjectival clause include:

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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.


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Amazing facts in English

Cat furnishings - Len Academy

The furry tufts of hair inside a cat's ear are called ear furnishings

There are only four words in the English language that end in 'dous'. These are:

  • Tremendous 

  • Horrendous

  • Stupendous

  • Hazardous

The only English word that ends with the letters 'mt' is dreamt and its derivatives; that is: undreamt, daydreamt, and redreamt

Los Angeles is America's second largest city. It's original name is 'El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles del Río Porciúncula'. In English language, this means: 'Town of our Lady the Queen of Angels of the River Porciúncula'

If you close your eyes in a completely dark room. When you open them, the color you see is called eigengrau, which means intrinsic gray

I.e is an abbreviation for id est which means 'that is,'

E.g is an abbreviation for exempli gratia which means 'for the sake of example,'

You can read all of Wikipedia's content offline by downloading it's database. Below is the link to download Wikipedia's database:

Download Wikipedia's Database here

Bacteria is a plural word. Its singular is Bacterium

That smell that comes after a rain has a name. It's called petrichor

The word 'orange' does not rhyme with any other word in the dictionary


NOTABLE POINTS IN English

Homonyms are words with the same spellings, same sounds but different meanings.

Below are some sentences containing homonyms with their respective meanings:

  • Keen

We have a keen match against Ronaldo’s team and Messi seems to be keen.

Keen: An involvement of people competing very hard for something.

Keen: Very interested in something.

  • Tear

Regardless the tear you shed, Mr. Frank will still tear your examination scripts.

Tear: The drop of liquid that comes out from a person's eye when they cry.

Tear: To damage something by pulling or cutting it apart.

  • Jot

There isn't any jot of truth in what he said, so I didn't jot anything down.

Jot: A very small amount of something

Jot: To write something quickly

Please read more on homonyms here

Certain words in English language appear to be similar but are quite different in meaning.

The table below shows some examples:

 Childlike

 Childish

 Stimulus

 Stimulant

 Destructible

 Destructive

 Negligible

 Negligent

 Comprehensible

 Comprehensive


Synonyms should not be confused with the above instance. They are different words with similar meanings.

Please read more on synonyms here.

Some words always exist in the plural form. Examples of such words are:

  • Scissors
  • Shears
  • Alms
  • News
  • Trousers

Possessive adjective tells you the owner of a thing. For instance;

This is his car.

'His' in the above statement is describing him as the owner of the car; and this makes 'his' a possessive adjective.

That is your bag.

'Your' is a possessive adjective in the above statement.

Note: An adjective is a word that describes a noun.

Possessive pronouns show possession.

A possessive pronoun will always correspond with each of the personal pronouns. For Instance:

I own the book. ('I' is a personal pronoun)

The book is mine. ('Mine' is the possessive pronoun)

She owns a car. ('She' is a personal pronoun)

The car is hers. ('Hers' is the possessive pronoun)