Geography

Branches of Geography: Physical and Environmental Geography

len Alfred Ajibola - Tue, 02nd June, 2020 @ 08:55: AM

Topics in Geography

Branches of Geography: Physical and Environmental Geography Geography Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Geography Scheme of Work, SS1, Second Term Geography Scheme of Work, SS1, Third Term Classification | Types of Planets and their Characteristics Planets of the Solar System with their Characteristics Functions of the Atmosphere Layers of the Atmosphere Solar System in Geography Atmosphere: Composition of the Atmosphere Geography, Types and Branches of Geography Characteristics and Examples of Igneous, Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks


Academic Questions in Geography

Please check out our Test Your Knowledge page to see all Questions and Answers

With regards to ozone, which of the following is incorrect?

  • A. Ozone is a triatomic molecule

  • B. Ozone layer aids in preventing excess ultraviolet radiation from reaching the earth

  • C. Ozone is a natural greenhouses gas

  • D. Ozone comprises of oxygen molecules only

  • E. Ozone layer brings about a global warming on earth

  • F. Ozone is present in the stratosphere

The atmosphere makes the followings possible on earth except _____.

  • A. Photosynthesis

  • B. Respiration

  • C. Rain

  • D. Ultraviolet rays

  • E. Global communication

  • F. Weather

The interface forming a boundary between the stratosphere and mesosphere is termed _____.

  • A. Mesoface

  • B. Mesopause

  • C. Mesostart

  • D. Stratoface

  • F. Stratopause

  • F. Stratostart

Which layer of atmosphere is closest to the earth?

  • A. Thermosphere

  • B. Mesosphere

  • C. Stratosphere

  • D. Ionosphere

  • E. Troposphere

  • F. Exosphere

Argon makes up _____ percent of the atmosphere.

  • A. 0.93

  • B. 0.002

  • C. 0.0005

  • D. 0.00009

  • E. 0.00005

  • F. 0.036

The following comprises the solar system except _____.

  • A. Comets

  • B. Asteroids

  • C. Lightenings

  • D. Interplanetary medium

  • E. Meteoroids

  • F. Planets

Which of the following is a planet?

  • A. Makemake

  • B. Roundcube

  • C. Squareline

  • D. Plutanept

  • E. Stardime

  • F. None of the above

The following are true concerning the gas planets except _____.

  • A. Neptune is an example of a gas planet

  • B. They are also referred to as jovian planets

  • C. They have rings around them

  • D. They are smaller in size when compared to earth

  • E. They are also referred to as gas giants

  • F. They are composed mainly of hydrogen and helium gas

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Branches of Geography:

Geography is a scientific field that studies the earth's surface, ecosystems and environments, including the relationship between man and these environments.

You can read on the Concept of an Ecosystem here.

The branches of geography may also be referred to as 'types of geography'. Generally, we have three branches or types of geography. These are:

  1. Human Geography
  2. Physical Geography
  3. Environmental Geography

In this article, we will focus on the physical and environmental branches of geography.

Please read on Human Geography here.


Physical Geography

Physical geography, also referred to as physiography, deals with the physical characteristics and features of the earth, including the inner layers of the earth.

Physical geography has the following branches:

  • Bio-Geography: This branch of physical geography involves the study of living organisms (plants and animals) and how they are distributed across the surface of the earth.

    Bio-geography is divided into plant geography, animal geography and human ecology.
    Please read on Ecology and Branches of Ecology here.


  • Climate Geography: It deals with the study of weather patterns over a period of time, and how they affect the climatic condition of a region. It also involve the study of the atmosphere.
    Please read more on the Atmosphere here.

  • Geomorphology: This branch of physical geography focuses on the study of the solid part of the earth (lithosphere or land) and its formation processes.


    Please read on Rocks, Types and Characteristics here.

    Geomorphology also include the study of various landforms, their origin and development; (for instance, land may be formed through the transportation and deposition process of water, wind and glaciers).

    Additionally, Geomorphology helps us understand the wearing out these landforms through erosion, thus resulting in their subsequent disappearance.
    Please read more on Soil Erosion here.


  • Soil Geography: As the name imply, it studies the soil, (lithosphere) and its distribution.

    Note: The lithosphere is solid part or layer of the earth's surface.
    Please more on the Lithosphere and other Ecological Concepts here.


  • Water Resources Geography: It deals with the various water resources, their management and distribution across the earth.
    Please read on water Mode of Transportation, Its Advantages and Disadvantages.

  • Oceanography: It deals with the study of oceans including their floor depths, currents and continental drifts.

Other branches of physical geography include:

  • Hydrology
  • Coastal Geography
  • Astronomical geography
  • Paleogeography
  • Glaciology

 

Environmenral Geography

Environmental geography deals with the study of the relationship between humans and their immediate environment, including the outcomes of this relationship.

You can read on the Uniqueness of Man here.

Environmental geography helps us to further understand how the various human activities on an area can affect such area. In addition, environmental geography encompasses the causes and spread of diseases that had resulted from environmental activities.

Please read more on Diseases and Vectors of Diseases here.

Finally, environmental geography has helped us to better understand how certain human activities can negatively impact the human environment.

You can read on the Harmful Traditional Practices in Nigeria here.

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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.


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Amazing facts in Geography

Africa on the globe hemispheres - Len Academy

Africa is the only continent with land in all four hemispheres of the 🌎 globe 🌎

Venus is the only 🪐 planet 🪐 that spins in a clockwise direction

Black holes aren't black. They only give off a dark glow because they are constantly consuming matter

The world's quietest room is located at Microsoft's headquarters in Redmond, Washington. This Microsoft's laboratory room measures a background noise of -20.35dBA; and that's a deafening silence

The universe has a color named cosmic latte

An earthquake is more likely to happen in Japan than any other country

Only 2 countries have the color purple in their national flag. Both countries are:

Nicaragua and Dominica

With 221,800 islands, Sweden is believed to have more islands than any other country in the world.

The shortest war in history lasted for only 38 minutes

Australia is both a country and continent and it has the highest number of reptiles in the world. (Over 750 different species of reptiles)


NOTABLE POINTS IN Geography

The atmosphere consists of gases that surround the entire surface of the spherical shaped earth. The compositions of these gases are as follows:

Composition of the Atmosphere -Len Academy

  • Nitrogen (N2): 78.09%
  • Oxygen (O2): 20.95%
  • Argon (Ar): 0.93%
  • Carbon(IV)oxide (CO2): 0.036%
  • Neon (Ne): 0.002%
  • Krypto (Kr): 0.001%
  • Helium (He): 0.0005%
  • Xenon (Xe): 0.00009%
  • Hydrogen (H2): 0.00005%
  • Water Vapour: Variable

All of these gases (listed above) make up the atmosphere and are generally called air.

Please read more on the atmosphere and it's composition here

Human Geography focuses on the study of human beings, their origin, race, and how they are affected by the earth.

Human geography can be divided into the following branches:

  • Economic Geography: This aspect of human geography looks into the distribution of goods and services. Distribution of wealth across the globe is also considered here.

    Instances of economic geography include a study or research done on the richest nations on earth. During thus research, the processes accounting for their wealth are ascertained.


  • Religious Geography: It studies the origin and spread of religious groups including their beliefs.

    Instances of religious geography include the study of the Christian or Islamic religion as seen in documentaries.


  • Medical Geography: It studies the process and events that bring about diseases and epidemics with regards to their geographical location, origin and distribution.

    As an instance, you may have heard about the geographical study and distribution of the disease 'COVID-19'. (Coronavirus is a case study here).

    Please read more on the branches of human geography here.

We have 3 main types or classes of rock based on how they are formed. These are:

1. Igneous Rock

 

2. Sedimentary Rock

 

3. Metamorphic Rock

 

Igneous rocks are formed when molten substances below the earth surface cools down and solidifies. These molten substances are called magma or lava. Magma can be derived from melting of existing rocks on the earth crust.

The solidification of molten magma into igneous rock may be below the earth's surface (intrusive) or on the earth's surface (extrusive), giving rise to the two types of igneous rock.

  • Intrusive Igneous Rock: These are igneous rocks that crystallizes below the earth’s surface. They generally cool slowly during the process of solidification and tend to produce large crystals.

    Intrusive Igneous Rock are also referred to as Plutonic Igneous Rock. Examples are gabbro, granite and pegmatite.

  • Extrusive Igneous Rock: They are igneous rocks that form when molten magma erupts on top of the earth's surface. They cool down and solidify quickly, producing small crystals in the process.  Sometimes, the molten magma cools so quickly, allowing no time for crystals to grow. This rapid cooling results in the formation of an amorphous glass.

    Extrusive Igneous Rock are also referred to as Volcanic Igneous Rock. Examples are basalt, rhyolite and scoria.

Sedimentary rocks amount to about 76% of the earth's surface. They can be formed in different ways. These are:

  • By the deposition of the weathered remains of pre-existing rocks and their subsequent transportation and deposition. Sedimentary rocks formed in this way are known as clastic sedimentary rock.

  • By the accumulation and lithification of sediment or detrital rock.

  • By their precipitation from solution. Sedimentary rocks formed in this way are known as chemical sedimentary rock.

  • As a result of biogenic activities. Sedimentary rocks formed in this way are known as organic sedimentary rock.

Please read more on types of rocks here