Topics in EconomicsAdvantages of Inflation Disadvantages of Inflation Concept of Inflation in Economics Scheme of work for Economics, SS1, First Term Scheme of work for Economics, SS1, Second Term Scheme of Work for Economics, SS1, Third Term Functions of the Wholesaler Advantages and Disadvantages of the Wholesaler Wholesale Market: Who is a Wholesaler? Characteristics of the Wholesaler Retail Market: Who is a Retailer and Examples of Retailers Market: Types of Market Market - What is a Market in Economics? Elasticity of Supply: Types of Supply Elasticity Supply Elasticity: Elasticity of Supply explained Demand Schedule - Types of Demand Schedule Demand: What is Demand? Law of Demand Concept and Types of Cost Supply, Supply Curve and Law of Supply What is a Black Market, Its advantages and disadvantages
Academic Questions in Economics
The above diagram on the quantity supplied against a change in price is _____.
C. Perfectly Elastic
D. Perfectly Inelastic
E. Zero Elastic
F. Unitary Elastic
The rate at which an increase in the price of a product translate into the product's increased production and availability in the market is termed _____.
C. Demand Elasticity
D. Supply Elasticity
E. Demand Curve
F. Supply Curve
Concerning demand curve, which of the following statement is incorrect?
A. It is a graphical represention of a table showing the price of commodities and quantity demanded
B. It can be an individual demand curve
C. The x-axis shows the price of commodities
D. The price and quantity demanded are expressed on different axis of the graph
E. It can be a market demand curve
F. All the options are correct
A table that shows the price of a commodity and the quantity demanded is termed _____.
A. Price table
B. Demand table
C. Demanded-price table
D. Demand preference table
E. Demand graph
F. Demand schedule
The concept of Ceteris Paribus Assumption in economics states that _____.
A. Supply and Demand are antagonistic
B. When given two choice of similar products with the same price (assuming all other factors are constant), you will prefer to buy that with a lower price
C. Supply and Demand are agonistic
D. When given two choice of dissimilar products with the same price (assuming all other factors are constant), you will prefer to buy that which you need most
E. When given two choice of similar products with the different prices (assuming all other factors are constant), you will prefer to buy that with a lower price
F. When given two choice of dissimilar products with the different prices (assuming all other factors are constant), you will prefer to buy that with a lower price
The willingness of a person to buy a specific quantity of goods or services at a given price and time is termed _____.
A. Scale of preference
B. Economies of scale
C. Opportunity Cost
Costs generally treated as expenses in business are termed _____.
A. Fixed cost
B. Variable cost
C. Sunk cost
D. Direct cost
E. Private cost
F. Outlay cost
When an entrepreneur pays cash (money) for materials needed for production, such money is termed as an _____ cost.
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Inflation, sometimes called price inflation is an important factor that will affect the citizens and residents of a nation either directly or indirectly. Interestingly, certain people gain from the events of inflation while others suffer from it.
In economics, inflation (or price inflation) is defined as a gradual and sustained rise in price level of goods and services in relation to their availability; which will inturn lead to a decrease in the purchasing power of a nation's currency.
In order to simplify the above definition, let's consider an instance using the nation Nigeria as our point of reference.
Back in the days (let's say 1970), the Nigerian Naira (one naira) had a higher value than the American Dollar (one dollar). Infact, during that time, it was considered to be equivalent to the British Pound (one pound). Now, fast forward to October 2020, four hundred and sixty five naira (₦465) is equivalent to one dollar ($1) in the Nigerian black market. Using the parallel market as an instance, ₦385 becomes equivalent to $1.
From the above instance, if Nigeria import phones from America at one dollar each (in 1970), such phone will sell at a price lower than one naira. This is true because the Nigerian Naira at that time had a greater value than the American Dollar; and as such, ₦1 naira will purchase 2 phones since it's equivalent to $2 (as at 1970). To simply put it, the importer exchanges ₦1 for $2 in order to buy phones from America.
On the contrary, the above instance of a phone which sells at price lesser than ₦1 in 1970 will now sell at a minimum of ₦385 in October, 2020. This becomes a fact because the Nigeria naira has lost its value to an extent that $1 is now equivalent to ₦385 in the parallel market.
The loss of monetary value is exactly what inflation does to the purchasing power of a nation's currency and the citizens ultimately suffers from this, especially if such country focuses more on the importation of products and services.
From the above explanations, Nigeria used to be a better country in 1970. During that time, the cost of living was quite low and the citizens could easily afford the basic amenities of life. As at now, the reverse is the case and corruption (birthing inflation) is its root.
If you are a teenage student reading this article, kindly ask your parents or an elderly person about the cost of living during their days and in comparison to now (as at October 2020). Their answer should give you a perfect clue to what inflation does to a nation.
Note: Inflation isn't always a bad thing.
In another instance, a brand new car in Nigeria may cost about N2,000 back in the days; but fast forward to now, an equivalent car will cost over ₦1,000,000. Understand that the increase in the price of a car isn't due to the scarcity of cars; rather it was caused by the decreased value of the Nigerian Naira as a result of inflation.
Once again, it is important to state that inflation reflects a reduction in the purchasing power (or value) per unit of money.
At the time of writing this article, inflation had made 10 Kobo, 50 Kobo, 1 Naira and even 5 Naira valueless in Nigeria.
According to economists, when too much money circulates in an economy, high rate of inflation (hyperinflation) results. To this end, we could also have low to moderate rates of inflation and such are believed to be caused by fluctuations in the demands of goods and services (or changes in the quantity of goods supplied and services rendered) during the periods of scarcity.
In general, inflation becomes imminent when the economic growth of a nation occurs at a slower rate while a corresponding increase in money (within the economy) occurs at a rapid rate. In summary, inflation is generally seen in country that imports more and produces less.
Note: Inflation can affect a nation both positively and negatively.
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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.
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Amazing facts in Economics
NOTABLE POINTS IN Economics
A Black market is said to take place when there is illegal buying and selling of goods and services.
Black markets usually take place outside the government's rader and without government's knowledge so as to avoid tax or any other government regulations.
Black market presents the avenue for government prohibited goods like hard drugs, war weapons and firearms to be bought by criminals.
A black market can also occur on the web for cyber criminals or those who are involved in computer hacking. To achieve their malicious aim, these individuals will go into the dark web and purchase or rent their respective hacking tools for a fee. Normally, payments are made in crypto currencies.
However, a black market isn't generally considered as bad. Infact, it has its advantages and disadvantages.
Below are some advantages of black market:
Goods and services are sold at a cheaper price.
It helps some people make plenty of money.
The illegal sales of human organs, for example, the sale of human kidneys have aided in saving some lives.
Some people actually depend on black market for their daily bread.
Some of the proceeds from black market may been utilized towards the economic growth of a Nation. For instance, schools and hospitals had been from money made from black market.
The law of supply states that:
The quantity of the supplied services or goods will increase as the price increases and they will decrease as the price decreases provided all other factors remain constant.
These constant factors are very important when stating the supply law. They include:
The price of Input resources
The kind of technology used during production
The number of suppliers
The number of buyers; and so on.
A graph that shows the relationship between the price of a product or service, and its quantity supplied is the supply curve.
Supply curve can be defined as a graphical representation of the direct relationship between the prices of goods and services and the quantity supplied (of such goods and services) within a particular period of time provided all other factors remain constant.
Consider the table below:
Needs / Wants
The above table shows us what a scale of preference would look like.
A scale of preference can be defined as the list of a person's needs or wants written in an order of importance.
You will observe that the person puts his most important needs or wants at the top of the list. Further down the list are his less important needs.
Now, let's imagine that this individual has 170,000 Naira to spend. According to the above scale of preference, the followings can be deduced;
A phone will be considered to be the most important; and it costs 50,000. He buys the phone.
A console game according to this person is next in importance; and it costs 120,000. He buys the console game.
Another question worth asking is:
What happens to his other needs?
This is where the term 'Opportinity Cost comes into play.
Scale of Preference can be defined as the list of a person's needs or wants written in an order of importance. 📜✍️
When you have a limited amount of money and could only buy some of the items on your list (the top items on the list); then the remaining items that you didn't buy will be generally considered as your opportunity cost.
Opportunity cost can be defined as the value of the best alternative that a person could have achieved or bought but couldn't achieve after the best choice had been achieved.
Opportunity cost are of two types. They are: