# Physics - Basic and Fundamental Physics Concepts

#### Academic Questions in PhysicsPlease check out our Test Your Knowledge page to see all Questions and Answers The rate of change of momentum is proportional to the applied force and will take place in the direction of that force. The above statement is attributed to _____. A. Albert Einstein B. Isaac Newton C. Galileo Galilei D. Neils Bohr E. Ernest Rutherford F. Marie Curie The Law of Inertia is also referred to as _____. A. 1st Law of Thermodynamics B. 2nd Law of Thermodynamics C. 3rd Law of Thermodynamics D. Newton's 1st Law of Motion E. Newton's 2nd Law of Motion F. Newton's 3rd Law of Motion The process whereby the velocity of an object increases and decreases over a period of time is best associated with the term _____. A. Speed B. Velocity C. Momentum D. Constant Velocity E. Acceleration F. Average Velocity The rate of motion is best referred to as _____. A. Speed B. Velocity C. Momentum D. Inertia E. Acceleration F. Constant Velocity Consider this expression below: A body X exerts a force FX on another body Y. In return, body Y exert a force FY back on body X. The forces FX and FY are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction. Putting the above expression into equation: FX = -FY Where FX is the action force FY is the reaction Force The above expression relates to _____. A. Theory of Force B. Force Postulate C. Einstein's proposal on Relativity D. Newton's 1st law of motion E. Newton's 2nd law of motion F. Newton's 3rd law of motion The tendency of a body to remain in a state of rest or in uniform motion is referred to as _____. A. tension B. uniform acceleration C. constant acceleration D. deceleration E. inertia F. velocity A change in the position of an object with reference to time is best described as _____. A. momentum B. displacement C. velocity D. acceleration E. direction F. motion The saying "what goes up on earth must come down" can be best attributed to _____. A. force B. motion C. mass D. acceleration E. average velocity F. constant velocity For a free trial, click here. Recommend to a school and get 25% commission for 6 academic terms

### What is physics?

Physics is defined as the scientific study of matter and the movement of matter through the space and time of the universe.

Note: Physics also explains how matter interact with each other.

In this article, we would look into the 4 basic and most fundamental physics concepts that will help you to better understand this subject. These are:

#### 1. The Laws of Motion (Classical Mechanics)

You may have probably heard the story of Sir Isaac Newton sitting under an apple tree and formulating the basic laws of motion. Although this story of Newton sitting under an apple tree isn't exactly true, Sir Isaac Newton actually made and explained the three fundamental laws of classical mechanics (also referred to as Newton's laws of motion).

They are stated thus:

An object at rest will continue in its state of rest; while an object in uniform motion will continue in a straight line, unless an external force acts on it.

Newton's First Law of Motion.

The rate of change of momemtum is proportional to the applied force and will take place in the direction of that force.

Newton's Second Law of Motion.

To every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.

Newton's Third Law of Motion.

If we looked deeply into these laws, we will see that they apply to our everyday life. For instance:

• when an egg is put on a flat surface, the egg remains still unless someone touches it (or an external force acts on it).
• On a hilly surface, gravity acts upon an object and pulls it downhill continuously, unless an opposite force (greater than gravity itself) acts against gravity.
• Plase read on Gravity here.

• Finally, if we hit our head against a wall, we will feel some pain simply because the wall exerts an equal and opposite force in return.

#### 2. Electromagnetism

Electromagnetism refers to the forces generated by electrons found in certain atoms. For instance, magnets have electrons that are configured in such a way that they exert force on other charged electrons.

The very reason why a magnet will attract a nail (and NOT a paper) is based on the fact that magnets exert energy on other “charged particles”. In this case, the particles found around the nail will exist as charged particles.

We use the term Photons to describe the force carried by an electromagnetic field.

Note: Electromagnetic radiation makes up much of our daily lives and these includes visible light, radio waves, x rays, and so on.

Electromagnetic forces have the capacity to generate charges and electricity and we may have come accross this process as kids (probably when a paper is used to attract things).

#### 3. Relativity The work of Albert Einstein opened up the theory of special relativity when he discovered that the speed of light in a vacuum does not depend on the motion of all observers.

General relativity is often described with the analogy of a moving car. It was expanded in the early 1900s when Albert Einstein created special relativity.

#### 4. Thermodynamics

The study of thermodynamics revolves around the relationship between heat, temperature, energy and mechanical work; and these can be summarised under the 4 laws of Thermodynamics (Numbered zero through three).

##### Below are the 4 laws of thermodynamics:

Zeroth law of thermodynamics – If two thermodynamic systems are each in thermal equilibrium with a third, then they are in thermal equilibrium with each other.

1st law of thermodynamics – Energy can neither be created nor destroyed but can be changed from one form to another.

2nd law of thermodynamics – The entropy of an isolated system not in equilibrium will tend to increase over time, approaching a maximum value at equilibrium.

3rd law of thermodynamics – As temperature approaches absolute zero, the entropy of a system approaches a constant minimum. Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.

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