Topics in PhysicsDerived Units: Similarities and differences with fundamental units Gravity: Facts on Gravity Relative Density of Substances and Specific Gravity Types of Heat Transfer: Conduction Types of Heat Transfer: Convection Types of Heat Transfer: Radiation Physics Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Physics Scheme of Work, SS1, Second Term Physics Scheme of Work, SS1, Third Term Velocity and Acceleration Newton's Laws of Motion Importance of Gravity What is Density? Density of various substances Concepts of Force and Motion in Physics Motion and Speed in Physics Concept of Heat Transfer Concepts of Heat and Temperature What is gravity? Concept of gravity on the solar system Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics: Thermal Equilibrium Fundamental Quantities and Units in Physics
Academic Questions in Physics
Which of the following is a fundamental quantity?
A. Luminous Intensity
An object at rest will temporarily stay in its state of rest, and if the object is in uniform motion, it will temporarily move in a straight line, unless an external force acts upon it.
The above statement refers to Sir Isaac Newton's first law of motion.
Which of the following statement is incorrect concerning gravity?
A. The force of gravity is generally considered the strongest force among the four forces that govern the universe
B. Your weight changes as you travel away from the earth
C. If we dig the earth until we get into its center, we will have no weight as a result of lack of gravity
D. Gravity prevents us from falling off the constantly rotating earth
E. If a hammer and a feather are dropped simultaneously in a vacuum, they will both land at the exact same time as a result of gravity
F. Weight is always a function of gravity
Sir Isaac Newton was hit by an apple when he pondered on force, motion and gravity.
The movement of gaseous particles through a tiny hole is termed _____.
A lighted bulb transfers heat through a process termed _____.
F. Electrical Induction
A measurement of how much the velocity of an object changes with time is termed _____.
E. Velocity-Time graph
F. Average velocity
Which of the following differentiates velocity from speed?
F. Distance and Time
Physics is defined as the scientific study of matter and the movement of matter through the space and time of the universe. Physics also explains the interaction of matter in our universe.
In this article, we would look into the 4 basic and fundamental physics concepts that will help students to better understand this subject. These are:
You may have heard the story of Sir Isaac Newton sitting under an apple tree and formulating the basic laws of motion. Although this story of Newton sitting under an apple tree isn't exactly true, Sir Isaac Newton did make and explained the three fundamental laws of classical mechanics, also referred to as Newton's laws of motion. They are stated thus:
An object at rest will continue in its state of rest; while an object in uniform motion will continue in a straight line, unless an external force acts on it.
Newton's First Law of Motion.
The rate of change of momemtum is proportional to the applied force and will take place in the direction of that force.
Newton's Second Law of Motion.
To every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
Newton's Third Law of Motion.
If we looked closely into these laws, we will see that they apply to our everyday life. For instance:
Electromagnetism refers to the forces generated by electrons found in certain atoms. For instance, magnets have electrons that are configured in such a way that they exert force on other charged electrons.
The very reason why a magnet will attract a nail and not a paper is based on the fact that magnets exert energy on other charged particles. In this case, the particles found around the nail exists as charged particles.
We use the term photons to describe the force carried by an electromagnetic field.
Electromagnetic radiation attributes to much of our daily lives. They include visible light, radio waves, x rays, and so on. Meanwhile, understand that electromagnetic forces have the capacity to generate charges and electricity. In fact, we may have experienced this process as kids perhaps when a paper is used to attract things.
The work of Albert Einstein opened up the theory of special relativity after his discovery that the speed of light in a vacuum does not depend on the motion of all observers.
General relativity is often described with the analogy of a moving car. It was expanded upon in the early 1900s when Albert Einstein created special relativity.
The study of thermodynamics revolves around the relationship between heat, temperature, energy and mechanical work. These can be summarised under the four laws of Thermodynamics (numbered zero through three).
Below are the four laws of thermodynamics:
Zeroth law of thermodynamics – If two thermodynamic systems are each in thermal equilibrium with a third, then they are in thermal equilibrium with each other.
Please read on the zeroth law of thermodynamics here.
1st law of thermodynamics – Energy can neither be created nor destroyed but can be changed from one form to another.
2nd law of thermodynamics – The entropy of an isolated system not in equilibrium will tend to increase over time, approaching a maximum value at equilibrium.
3rd law of thermodynamics – As temperature approaches absolute zero, the entropy of a system approaches a constant minimum.
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Amazing facts in Physics
Marie Curie was the first person ever to win two Nobel prizes. She won her first Nobel price for physics in 1903, and the second for chemistry in 1911 for her work on radioactivity.
The hottest temperature ever recorded occurred in Furnace Creek Ranch, Death Valley, California, USA, at 56.7oC or (134oF) on July 10, 1913
A medium-sized cumulus cloud has a weight of about 80 adult elephants.
You can think of cumulus cloud as a detached, individual, cauliflower-shaped cloud often seen in fair weather conditions
The reason the Leaning Tower of Pisa is tilted is the same reason it's still standing
One quarter of an apple is filled with air and that's why they float in water
The Nobel price was named after its founder, Alfred Noble. He is a Swedish, born on October 21, 1833; and was the inventor of dynamite. He was also a a famous scientist and a successful business man.
Glass balls bounce higher than rubber balls
Every planet has its own unique gravitational force. For instance, Mars has a gravity of 3.711 m/s2 while earth’s gravitational force is 9.807m/s2.
When two metals are put together in space, they will stick together as if they are welded. This phenomenon is called cold welding
The fastest animal on land is cheetah. It can reach a maximum speed of about 113km per hour.
Notable points in Physics
The Standard International (SI) unit for density is kilogram per cubic metre (Kg/m3).
The table below shows various substances with their densities:
Air (1atm and 20oC)
Water (Fresh Water)
Force can be balanced or unbalanced.
When forces from different directions act on an object and consequently bring about the object's motion, then such forces are unbalanced.
Conversely, if theses forces bring about zero motion (static position or no movement) on the object of reference, then it's a balanced force.
An apple hanging on a tree (without any form of movement) has a balanced force.
An apple falling from a tree has an unbalanced force.
If one covers a distance of 10,000 meters in 50 seconds and another covers the same distance in 5,000 seconds, we can conclude that the first person has a greater speed because he covered the same distance at a lesser time.
Speed is defined as distance travelled per unit of time. It can also be defined as the rate of change of distance.
Speed = distance/Time
Speed is a scalar quantity since it has only magnitude. Speed does not have a direction.
In physics, motion is defined as a change in the position of an object with reference to time.
Although we sometimes sit or stand in a fixed position, that doesn’t mean motion isn’t taking place. The fact that the earth is constantly rotating implies that we are indirectly moving along with it. We can thus say that motion can be relative to some frame of reference.
In the above paragraph, the earth (constantly rotating along its axis) is our frame of reference and everything present on earth is in motion (with regard to earth as a frame of reference).
Heat is a form of energy. It cannot be lost according to the first law of Thermodynamics; rather it will be transferred. The first and second laws of thermodynamics are stated below:
Energy can neither be created nor destroyed but can be transformed or converted from one form to another.
1st law of thermodynamics
In the course of energy transfer, some energy is lost in the form of heat to the surroundings.
2nd law of Thermodynamics