Topics in Agricultural ScienceImportance of forest: Forest reserves in Nigeria Wildlife reserves in Nigeria and its importance Prevention and Control of Crop Pests Economic Importance of Crop Pests Classification of Insect Pests and their Economic Importance Agricultural Machines and their Uses Soil Erosion: Causes of Soil Erosion Ways to prevent Soil Erosion Asexual Propagation in Plants, Types and Examples Differences between Gymnosperms and Angiosperms Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, First Term Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, Second Term Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, Third Term Len Academy Agric Science exam questions, JSS1, First Term Len Academy Agric Science exam questions, JSS1, First Term, part 2 Definitions and Meanings of Agricutural terms (P - Q) Definition and Meanings of Agricultural Terms (P and Q) part 2 Len Academy questions for Agric Science JSS1, 2nd Term Len Academy questions for Agric Science JSS1, 2nd Term, Part 2 Roles of Government in Agriculture
Academic Questions in Agricultural Science
Cordage is made from _____ crop.
F. Vegetables and Spice
_____ is defined as the solid and arable part of the earth where agricultural activities are be carried out.
C. Agricultural land
E. Open land
F. Planting and grazing land
Gymnosperms and angiosperms are seed bearing plants under the division spermatophyta?
Which of the following is false concerning gymnosperms?
A. Cones are present
B. Sepals are present
C. Petals are absent
D. Only seeds are produced
E. Sporophyll form the cones
F. In seed formation, the ovules aren't present in the ovary
Which of the following statement is incorrect concerning seeds?
A. The ovary develops into the seed after fertilization
B. The embryo in the seed develops into a young plant
C. The seed's endosperm serve as a source of food reserve for the developing embryo
D. A seed has its own genotype
E. Seeds are products of sexual reproduction
F. Apomictic seeds aren't produced sexually and the hawkseed is an example
The _____ is the reproductive organ in plant's sexual reproduction.
A. Pollen grain
In flowering plants, fertilization occurs when the _____ comes into contact with the ova (as genetic materials are eventually exchanged).
F. Pollen grain
The fusion of sperm and ova in animals leads to the formation of _____.
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Soil erosion is defined as a process that removes the topsoil through agents like water, wind, man and animals.
The causes of soil erosion can be natural or man-made. For instance, wind as a cause of soil erosion is natural while a lack of crop rotation practices (which also leads to soil erosion) is man-made.
Below are some explanations on the various causes of soil erosion:
Rainfall is a natural cause of soil erosion. During the course of a "heavy downpour", the force at which water droplets hit the soil may cause the breaking of the top soil and a resultant penetration of water into it. This can result in the exposure of the soil’s contents.
On a hilly land, a gully may be formed when water runs downhill. Subsequently, the runoff water creates a deep channel into the soil, giving rise to the gully erosion. This is shown in the image below:
The runoff water also flushes the topmost nutrients of the soil down its path, depositing them into the riverbed.
A strong wind will bring about the loss of the topsoil, especially on soils whose structure had already been loosened up by erosion.
The chances of wind erosion are further enhanced when the land is bare (that is, not covered with plants or vegetation). For this reason, wind erosion is common in the desert (arid land) and lands with sandy soil.
Image of a Desert Biome
Note: Of all soil types, sandy soil is most susceptible to wind erosion due to its porous soil structure.
The presence of a vegetation cover on a land aids in protecting it from soil erosion.
Vegetation cover on a land may be achieved by planting grasses, legumes or small green plants (generally called cover crops) on the land.
Note: A cover crop is grown prior to the planting season. In short, they protect and prepares the soil for a new planting season.
Below is an image of two lands. In this image, the land (left) is not protected by cover crops while the land (right) had been been protected through the planting cover crops.
The soil in forests have also got vegetation cover in the form of tall trees. These tall trees act as wind breaks, thus protecting the soil from water and wind erosion.
When a land is constantly ploughed, its soil becomes susceptible to erosion. This is true because the particulate nature of the soil becomes exposed to water and wind erosions.
To plough a land means to loosen its soil in preparation for sowing or planting.
The degree of sloppiness of a land will determine the level of soil erosion. For instance, a hilly slopped land is more likely to be eroded from runoff water as it moves down the slope.
The image below shows a sloped land:
Crop rotation is a system of farming whereby different type of crops are grown on the same piece of land from one planting season to another.
The continuous planting of one type of crop (termed mono cropping) on a piece of farmland will result in the loss of nutrients on the soil of such farmlands. Soils whose nutrients are lost are unable to support the growth of plants (vegetation cover); thus becoming exposed to water and wind erosion.
Overgrazing is said to occur when cattle, sheep and goats excessively feed on plants present on a piece of land.
Overgrazing removes the vegetation cover from the top soil, subsequently exposing it to water and wind erosion.
Deforestation is a process whereby forest trees are cut down in a large scale.
Recall that the presence of forest trees on a farmland serves as protection from wind (termed wind breaks). In addition, the roots of these trees firmly hold the soil together thus preventing it from been lost to wind erosion.
Eventually, the topsoil in a forest whose trees had been cut down become exposed to water and wind erosion.
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Amazing facts in Agricultural Science
Peanuts are legumes and not nuts
Although plants neither see nor hear, they can recognize their siblings and even give them preferential treatments
Squirrels do plant more trees (through their actions) than an average human in their lifetime. They often hide their acorns and nuts underground and forget about them
Cows have got the ability to walk up stairs, but not down stairs
A group of cows is called a team, drove or herd.
People just prefer to call them herd
NOTABLE POINTS IN Agricultural Science
Below are some common types of erosion:
Water Erosion: It is caused by rainfall and flooding on the topsoil. As a result of water erosion, some layers of the topsoil are lost.
Sheet Erosion: When an entire surface of land becomes eroded at a uniform (equal) level, such is referred to as sheet erosion. It is shown below:
Wind Erosion: It results from the actions of wind on a bare land. Wind erosion is often seen in deserts. Overgrazing and lack of vegetation cover will also enhance wind erosion on topsoil.
Soil erosion is defined as a process through which the topsoil is removed or moved from one point to another by agents like wind, water, man and animals.
Soil erosion occurs naturally (wind and water) and may also be facilitated by living organisms.
Soil erosion is more likely to occur on a sloppy land and land with no vegetation cover. When this occurs, the nutrient rich layer of the topsoil is washed away; and this ultimately results in fewer plants growing on such eroded soil.
There are about 630 different kinds of carnivorous plants.
Carnivorous plants are plants that derive some or most of their nutrients by consuming small animals, especially insects.
Carnivorous plants are also referred to as insectivorous plants.
Examples of carnivorous plants include sundew and Venus flytrap.