Agricultural Science

Soil Erosion: Causes of Soil Erosion

len Alfred Ajibola - Fri, 21st February, 2020 @ 20:36: PM

Topics in Agricultural Science

Prevention and Control of Crop Pests Economic Importance of Crop Pests Classification of Insect Pests and their Economic Importance Agricultural Machines and their Uses Soil Erosion: Causes of Soil Erosion Ways to prevent Soil Erosion Asexual Propagation in Plants, Types and Examples Differences between Gymnosperms and Angiosperms Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, First Term Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, Second Term Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, Third Term Len Academy Agric Science exam questions, JSS1, First Term Len Academy Agric Science exam questions, JSS1, First Term, part 2 Agriculture Terms - Definitions and Meanings of Agricutural Terms (P - Q) Agricultural Terms: Definition and Meanings of Agricultural Terms (P and Q), part 2 Len Academy questions for Agric Science JSS1, 2nd Term Len Academy questions for Agric Science JSS1, 2nd Term, Part 2 Roles of Government in Agriculture Agricultural pest and Crops attacked Agriculture Terms - Definitions and Meanings of Agricutural Terms (I - O)


Academic Questions in Agricultural Science

Please check out our Test Your Knowledge page to see all Questions and Answers

Which of the following is an example of oil crop?

  • A. Melon

  • B. Rubber

  • C. Flax

  • D. Moringa

  • E. Ginger

  • F. Coffee

Concerning crops and plants, which of the following statement is incorrect?

  • A. All plants are not crops

  • B. All crops are plants

  • C. Cactus can be a crop

  • D. Corpse flower is not a plant

  • E. Venus flytrap is not a crop

  • F. All the options are correct

Which of the following is not a problem associated with agriculture?

  • A. Superfluous research facilities

  • B. Poor road network

  • C. Illiteracy

  • D. Lack of storage facilities

  • E. Limited mechanized farming

  • F. Bad government policies

Mallet - Len Academy

The above image is a _____.

  • A. Hammer

  • B. Crowbar

  • C. Shear

  • D. Secateur

  • E. Bolo

  • F. Mallet

Cutlass - Len Academy

The agricultural tool shown in the image (above) is used for the followings except _____.

  • A. For cutting tree branches, weeds, and other plant materials in farmland

  • B. To remove dirts from the top soil

  • C. For harvesting crops like sugarcane

  • D. To clear bushes

  • E. For planting crops like melon

  • F. To dig superficial holes for the planting of seeds

Which of the following statement is false concerning soil erosion?

  • A. The top soil is moved from one point to another

  • B. Man is an agent that bring about soil erosion

  • C. Wind and water are natural agents of soil erosion

  • D. Sheet erosion is said to occur when the surface of a land is eroded at an unequal levels

  • E. Deforestation will increase the likehood of wind erosion

  • F. Rill erosion results in the formation of miniature dongas on land

Gully erosion - Len Academy

The above diagram shows a _____ erosion.

  • A. Wind

  • B. Sheet

  • C. Rill

  • D. Gully

  • E. Landslide

  • F. Crooked

An instance of farming whereby a farmer uses animal and green manure as fertilizers in place of chemicals like NPK is termed _____.

  • A. Reformative farming

  • B. Alternative farming

  • C. Crude farming

  • D. Retrogressive farming

  • E. Non-Chemical farming

  • F. Agro-farming

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Causes of Soil Erosion:

Soil erosion is defined as a process that removes the topsoil through agents like water, wind, man and animals.

The causes of soil erosion can be natural or man-made. For instance, wind as a cause of soil erosion is natural while a lack of crop rotation practices (which also leads to soil erosion) is man-made.

Please read on ways to Prevent Soil Erosion here.

Below are some explanations on the various causes of soil erosion:


1. Water

Rainfall is a natural cause of soil erosion. During the course of a "heavy downpour", the force at which water droplets hit the soil may cause the breaking of the top soil and a resultant penetration of water into it. This can result in the exposure of the soil’s contents.

On a hilly land, a gully may be formed when water runs downhill. Subsequently, the runoff water creates a deep channel into the soil, giving rise to the gully erosion. This is shown in the image below:
Gully Erosion - Len Academy

Please read more on Soil Erosion and Types of Soil Erosion here.

The runoff water also flushes the topmost nutrients of the soil down its path, depositing them into the riverbed.


2. Wind

A strong wind will bring about the loss of the topsoil, especially on soils whose structure had already been loosened up by erosion.

The chances of wind erosion are further enhanced when the land is bare (that is, not covered with plants or vegetation). For this reason, wind erosion is common in the desert (arid land) and lands with sandy soil.
Desert - Len Academy
Image of a Desert Biome

Please read on Deserts here.

Note: Of all soil types, sandy soil is most susceptible to wind erosion due to its porous soil structure.


3. Lack of Vegetation Cover

The presence of a vegetation cover on a land aids in protecting it from soil erosion.

Vegetation cover on a land may be achieved by planting grasses, legumes or small green plants (generally called cover crops) on the land.

Note: A cover crop is grown prior to the planting season. In short, they protect and prepares the soil for a new planting season.

Below is an image of two lands. In this image, the land (left) is not protected by cover crops while the land (right) had been been protected through the planting cover crops.
Cover Crops - Len Academy

The soil in forests have also got vegetation cover in the form of tall trees. These tall trees act as wind breaks, thus protecting the soil from water and wind erosion.

Please read on the Tropical Rainforest Biome here.


4. Constant Ploughing of Land

When a land is constantly ploughed, its soil becomes susceptible to erosion. This is true because the particulate nature of the soil becomes exposed to water and wind erosions.

To plough a land means to loosen its soil in preparation for sowing or planting.

Please read on Agricutural Tools and their Uses here.


5. Sloppiness of the Land

The degree of sloppiness of a land will determine the level of soil erosion. For instance, a hilly slopped land is more likely to be eroded from runoff water as it moves down the slope.

The image below shows a sloped land:
Slopy Land - Len Academy

You can read on Agricultural Land and its Uses here.


6. Lack of Crop Rotation

Crop rotation is a system of farming whereby different type of crops are grown on the same piece of land from one planting season to another.

You can read on Agricultural Terms and Meanings here.

The continuous planting of one type of crop (termed mono cropping) on a piece of farmland will result in the loss of nutrients on the soil of such farmlands. Soils whose nutrients are lost are unable to support the growth of plants (vegetation cover); thus becoming exposed to water and wind erosion.


7. Overgrazing

Overgrazing is said to occur when cattle, sheep and goats excessively feed on plants present on a piece of land.

Overgrazing removes the vegetation cover from the top soil, subsequently exposing it to water and wind erosion.

You can read on Asexual Propagation in Plants here.


8. Deforestation

Deforestation is a process whereby forest trees are cut down in a large scale.

You can attempt Len Academy Agric Science Questions for JSS1, First term here.

Recall that the presence of forest trees on a farmland serves as protection from wind (termed wind breaks). In addition, the roots of these trees firmly hold the soil together thus preventing it from been lost to wind erosion.

Eventually, the topsoil in a forest whose trees had been cut down become exposed to water and wind erosion.

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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.


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Amazing facts in Agricultural Science

🥜 Peanuts 🥜 are legumes and not nuts

Although plants neither see nor hear, they can recognize their siblings and even give them preferential treatments 🤔

Squirrels do plant more 🌲 trees 🌲 (through their actions) than an average human in their lifetime. They often hide their acorns and nuts underground and forget about them 😁

🐄 Cows 🐄 have got the ability to walk up stairs, but not down stairs

A group of cows 🐄 🐄 🐄  is called a team, drove or herd.

People just prefer to call them herd


NOTABLE POINTS IN Agricultural Science

Below are some common types of erosion:

  • Water Erosion: It is caused by rainfall and flooding on the topsoil. As a result of water erosion, some layers of the topsoil are lost.

  • Sheet Erosion: When an entire surface of land becomes eroded at a uniform (equal) level, such is referred to as sheet erosion.

    Sheet Erosion - Len Academy

  • Wind Erosion: It results from the actions of wind on a bare land. Wind erosion is often seen in deserts. Overgrazing and lack of vegetation cover will also enhance wind erosion on topsoil.

​​​Please read more on types of soil erosion here.

Soil erosion is defined as a process through which the topsoil is removed or moved from one point to another by agents like wind, water, man and animals.

Soil erosion occurs naturally (wind and water) and may also be facilitated by living organisms.

Soil erosion is more likely to occur on a sloppy land and land with no vegetation cover. When this occurs, the nutrient rich layer of the topsoil is washed away; and this ultimately results in fewer plants growing on such eroded soil.

Please read more on soil erosion here

There are about 630 different kinds of carnivorous plants.

Carnivorous plants are plants that derive some or most of their nutrients by consuming small animals, especially insects.

Carnivorous plants are also referred to as insectivorous plants.

Some example of carnivorous plants include sundew and Venus flytrap.

Please read more on Carnivorous Plants here