Government

Organs, Arms or Branches of Government

len Alfred Ajibola - Thu, 09th May, 2019 @ 1:58 PM

Topics in Government

Arms of Government: Functions of the Executive, Legislature and Judiciary Scheme of Work for Government, SS1, First Term Scheme of Work for Government, SS1, Second Term Scheme of Work for Government, SS1, Third Term Concept, Advantages and Disadvantages of Multi-Party System Concept, Advantages and Disadvantages of Two-Party System Pressure Group: Types of Pressure Group Characteristics of Pressure Group Constitution - Types of Constitution Government - Scope of Government Government - Characteristics of Government Government - Importance of Government One-Party System explained Multi-Party System explained with its Characteristics Party System: Zero Party System Two-Party System explained with its Characteristics Democracy and Types of Democracy Democracy - Characteristics of Democracy Government - Types and Forms of Government Government - Functions of Government


Academic Questions in Government

Please check out our Test Your Knowledge page to see all Questions and Answers

A type of democracy whereby shura is practiced is termed _____ democracy

  • A. Direct

  • B. Indirect

  • C. Constitutional

  • D. Islamic

  • E. Authoritarian

  • F. Participatory

A type of democracy whereby the people vote a bill into law is termed _____ democracy

  • A. Direct

  • B. Indirect

  • C. Constitutional

  • D. Islamic

  • E. Authoritarian

  • F. Participatory

In democracy, every citizen has got the right to vote and be vote for. Also, the principle one man one vote in this regard refers to which characteristic of democracy?

  • A. Separation of power

  • B. Freedom of expression

  • C. Constitutional supremacy

  • D. Rule of Law

  • E. Political equality

  • F. Popular sovereignty

Democracy is defined as a government formed by the consent of the governed.

  • A. True

  • B. False

Which of the following is not a type of democracy?

  • A. Peripheral democracy

  • B. Direct democracy

  • C. Islamic democracy

  • D. Representative democracy

  • E. Participatory democracy

  • F. Authoritarian democracy

Which of the following is not a characteristics of democracy?

  • A. Kingdom supracy

  • B. Rule of law

  • C. Political equality

  • D. Separation of power

  • E. Freedom of expression

  • F. Popular sovereignty

The following are functions of government except _____.

  • A. To provide free money for her citizens

  • B. To make laws as contained in the constitution

  • C. To defend and protect the lives and properties of her citizens

  • D. To provide a justice system

  • E. To generate revenue for the country

  • F. To maintain law and order through the law enforcement agencies

Government may be defined as an agency or machinery or instrument that is established to manage the general welfare of the people that make up a country.

In the above statement, government is defined _____.

  • A. As a process

  • B. As an act of governing

  • C. As an institution of a state

  • D. As an academic field o study

  • E. As a political wheel

  • F. As a machine of movement

LEN ACADEMY SMART SCHOOL SOFTWARE

Image

Read more on its smart academic features here

Please click here to kindly support education


Organs of Government:

The organs of government (also referred to as arms of government or branches of government) are:

  1. Executive
  2. Legislature
  3. Judiciary

These three arms of government serves as a separation of power.

Separation of Power implies that they carry out their distinct (separate) functions and responsibilities in accordance with the nation's constitution.

Please read more on Constitution here.

Below are explanations on the three Organs or Arms or Branches of Government:


  • Executive

The president (who is the number one citizen of a country and the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces) is the head of the executive arm of government. It is the responsibility of the executive to enforce or execute the law.

Please read on the Responsibilities, Duties and Obligations of a Citizen here.

The president is always expected to have a cabinet consisting of various members whom he works with. For instance, the president of Nigeria, President Muhammadu Buhari (2019) will have a cabinet that will include the followings:

  1. Vice president
  2. Ministers: They head various executive departments like sports, agriculture, finance and so on. These aforementioned ministries are headed by the minister of sports, minister of agriculture and minister of finance respectively.
  3. Members of the Federal Executive Council (FEC): The president is the head of the Federal Executive Council.
  4. Federal Agencies: In Nigeria, the federal agencies include:

In a democratic system of government, the president and the vice president must win the majority of votes during election before they can assume their respective offices.

Please read on Democracy and its Characteristics here.

In a country like Nigeria, an elected president can serve a maximum of eight years (two terms). The vice president is simultaneously elected with the president with regards to their political party during the electoral process. Therefore, the vice president is never appointed in a democratic system of government.

Please read on the Types of Democracy here.

When the president leaves the country, the vice president automatically serves in the capacity of the president until the president returns.

 

  • Legislature

The legislature is a group of elected persons who are required to make law.

In Nigeria, the legislature consist of the bicameral National Assembly which are:

  1. The upper house or chamber (Senate)
  2. The lower house or chamber (House of Representatives)

In Nigeria, three members of each state comprises the senator for that respective state with one member from the Federal Capital Territory (FCT). For this reason, the Nigerian senate comprises of 109 senators (since it has 36 states excluding the FCT).

Note: There are 36 states in Nigeria as at 2019. Three senators represents each of their constituent state. Meanwhile, the House of Representative is comprised of 360 members.

Please read on the Nigerian National Symbols here.

The Senate, House of Representative or the Presidency can initiate a bill. The point to remember is: 'a bill must pass through both houses before it can become a law'.

The head of the senate is referred to as the Senate President while that of the house of representative is referred to as the Speaker. Both must be elected within their respective houses alongside their deputies.

Understand that an impeachment proceedings can only be initiated by the lower house (House of Representatives). Consequently, the Senate will not be able to impeach any federal officer (including the president) unless the House of Representative put forward the impeachment charges.

Conversely, the House of Representative cannot impeach, neither do they have any say in the decision to remove an executive from office. It is the responsibility of the senate to try, convict, and remove the President or other impeachable federal officers.

It is the responsibility of the house to suggest, debate on and pass bills which may become a law.

For a bill to be passed into law, it must be approved by a minimum of 2/3rd majority from both the Senate and House of Representative.

Please read on the functions of the executive, legislative and Judiciary arms of government here.

 

  • Judiciary

The judiciary is an independent arm of government whose power is enforced in the courts.

Like the Executive and Legislature, they function under the guidance of the constitution.

According to the hierarchies, the courts comprising the judiciary include:

  1. Supreme Court
  2. Court of Appeal
  3. Federal High Court
  4. High Court of the Federal Capital Territory
  5. State High Court
  6. National Industrial Court
  7. Sharia Court of Appeal
  8. Customary Court of Appeal
  9. Magistrate Courts
  10. District Courts

The Chief Justice (CJ) is the head of the Supreme Court. In Nigeria, the Chief Justice is referred to as the CJN (Chief Justice of Nigeria).

Please click here to follow Len Academy on Google News.

Please like and follow our official facebook page here for great educational write-ups.

You can follow Len Academy on twitter here.Thank you.


Kindly share this article via the links below:


len

Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.


Please Register here or Login here to contribute to this topic by commenting in the box below.

CONTRIBUTE TO THIS TOPIC | ASK A QUESTION


Amazing facts in Government


NOTABLE POINTS IN Government

The organs of government (also referred to as arms of government or branches of government) are:

  1. Executive

  2. Legislature

  3. Judiciary

These three arms of government serves as a separation of power.

Separation of Power implies that they carry out their distinct (separate) functions and responsibilities in accordance to the nation's constitution.

The president (who is number one citizen of a country and the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces) is the head of the executive arm of government. It is the responsibility of the executive to enforce or execute the law.

 

The legislature is a group of elected persons who are required to make law.

In Nigeria, the legislature consist of the bicameral National Assembly which are:

  1. The upper house or chamber (Senate)
  2. The lower house or chamber (House of Representative)

 

The judiciary is an independent arm of government whose power is enforced in the courts.

Like the Executive and Legislature, they function under the guidance of the constitution.

Please read more on the organs of government here

Below are some functions of the executive arm of government:

  1. They ensure the security of the citizens in a country.

  2. The executive cannot pass laws into the constitution. Instead, they can forward bills to the legislature (or parliament) which will deliberate upon it. (Think of 'bill' as a proposal to be made into law; which will be submitted to the parliament in the form of a draft act).

  3. It is the president's responsibility to provide quality healthcare system, education, good roads (transport system), power, labour and finance through his ministers. For instance, the minister of agriculture oversees the affairs of agriculture in a nation. The ministers may also be accountable to the national assembly with regards to how they go about their ministries.

  4. They bring about maintenance of law and order in a country through the National Security Agencies (NSA) like the police, army, navy and air force.

  5. They prepare and execute the nation’s budget.

  6. The president approves the law into the constitution.

Plesse read more on the functions of executive, legislative and judiciary arms of government here

No one is above the constitution, even the president or prime minister.

  • The constitution is the supreme law in a country, nation or state.

  • The constitution specifies how the nation or state should be governed.

  • The constitution gives power to the different organs of government; (that is,  the executive, judiciary and legislature).

  • The constitution consists of all the fundamental human rights of the people.

Juxtaposing the above points, below is a definition for the term constitution:

Constitution is a supreme law that specifies the government of a nation, the distribution of powers to the different organs of government within that nation and the fundamental rights of all her citizens.

Please read more on the constitution here

Below are some qualities or characteristics of a constitution

  • It is neither too rigid nor too flexible.

  • It accounts for the rule of law, de-centralization of power, an independent Judiciary system and processes of election transparency.

  • It accounts for the fundament human rights of the people.

  • It allocates power to the different arms of government.

  • It must uphold the people’s sovereignty.

  • It is written systematically.

You can read on the Types of Constitution here.

Dictatorship is one of the forms of Government. It can exist either as:

  1. Military Dictatorship
  2. Civilian Dictatorship

In 1966, Major General Johnson Aguiyi Ironsi became the first military Head of State in Nigeria after he overthrew a democratic and constitutional government (headed by the prime minister; Alhaji Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa)

The above instance is a military form of dictatorship.

A typical example of a civilian dictatorship is Adolf Hitler of Germany and Joseph Stalin of Russia and Georgia

You can read more on dictatorship here