Topics in GovernmentConcept, Advantages and Disadvantages of Multi-Party System Concept, Advantages and Disadvantages of Two-Party System Pressure Group: Types of Pressure Group Characteristics of Pressure Group Constitution - Types of Constitution Government - Scope of Government Government - Characteristics of Government Government - Importance of Government One-Party System explained Multi-Party System explained with its Characteristics Party System: Zero Party System Two-Party System explained with its Characteristics Democracy and Types of Democracy Democracy - Characteristics of Democracy Government - Types and Forms of Government Government - Functions of Government What is Government? Definitions of Government Organs, Arms or Branches of Government and their Functions Constitution: Meaning, Qualities and Importance of Constitution Pressure Group in Nigeria - Types and Examples
Academic Questions in Government
The absence of government in a country or state is referred to as _____.
The definition of democracy as "Government of the people, by the people and for the people" is a concept of _____.
A form of government where the wealthy rule the people is known as _____.
Which of the following countries isn't a result of the disintegration of the Soviet Union (USSR)?
The organs of government (also referred to as arms of government or branches of government) are:
These three arms of government serves as a separation of power.
Separation of Power implies that they carry out their distinct (separate) functions and responsibilities in accordance to the nation's constitution.
Below is an explanation of each of the Organs or Arms or Branches of Government:
The president, who is number one citizen of a country and the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces is the head of the executive arm of government.
It is the responsibility of the executive to enforce or execute the law.
The president will have a cabinet consisting of various members with whom he works with. For instance, the president of Nigeria, President Muhammadu Buhari (2019) will have a cabinet that will include the followings:
1. Vice president
2. Ministers: They head various executive departments like sports, agriculture, finance and so on.
3. Members of the Federal Executive Council
4. Federal Agencies: In Nigeria, the federal agencies include:
Note: The president is the head of the National Everything Council (NEC).
In a democratic system of government, the president and the vice president must win the majority of votes during a process called election in order to assume their respective offices.
The executive run the country and is empowered by the law or constitution to carry out the following functions:
Note: The executive arm of government may also make treaties with other nations; but such treaties must be ratified by the senate.
A treaty is a formal and written agreement between two or more countries and must be ratified.
In a country like Nigeria, an elected president can serve a maximum of eight years (two terms). The vice president is simultaneously elected with the president with regards to their political party during the electoral process. Therefore, the vice president is never appointed in a democratic system of government.
When the president leaves the country, the vice president automatically serves in the capacity of the president until the president returns.
The legislature is a group of elected persons who are required to make law.
In Nigeria, the legislature consist of the bicameral National Assembly which are:
In Nigeria, three members of each state make up the senate (with one member from the Federal Capital Territory (FCT, Abuja) giving its totality to 109 senators in Nigeria.
Note: There are 36 states in Nigeria as at 2019. The senators represents each of their constituent state.
Meanwhile, the House of Representative is comprised of 360 members.
Either the Senate, House of Representative or the Presidency can initiate a bill. The point to remember is: "a bill must pass through both houses before it can become a law".
The head of the senate is referred to as the Senate President while that of the house of representative is referred to as the Speaker. Both must be elected in their respective houses together with their deputy.
Note: Only the House of Representative can initaite an impeachment proceedings; the Senate will not be able to impeach any federal officer (including the president) unless the House of Representative brings the impeachment charges.
Conversely, the House of Representative cannot impeach, neither do they have any say in the decision to remove an executive from office. It is the responsibility of the senate to try, convict, and remove the President or other impeachable federal officers.
It is the responsibility of the house to suggest, debate on and pass bills which may become a law.
For a bill to be passed into law, it must be approved by a minimum of 2/3rd majority of both the Senate and House of Representative.
Below are some of the functions of the Legislature:
The judiciary is an independent arm of government whose power is enforced in the courts.
Like the Executive and Legislature, they function under the guidance of the constitution.
According to the hierarchies, the courts comprising the judiciary include:
Note: The Chief Justice (CJ) is the head of the Supreme Court. In Nigeria, the Chief Justice is referred to as the CJN (that is; Chief Justice of Nigeria).
Below are some of the functions of the Legislature:
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Amazing facts in Government
NOTABLE POINTS IN Government
Anarchy is one of the forms of government. Ironically, it is the absence of government in a society, country or state.
An instance of anarchy occurred in Somalia in 1991 after a dictator name Said Barre was overthrown. This made Somalia disintegrate into fractions with local warlords imposing their authority over their land/area.
Other forms of government includes:
Democracy is a form of government where the power of choosing a leader is vested on the people. It represents a government of the people, by the people and for the people.
According to Abrahim Lincoln,
Democracy means government of the people, by the people and for the people.
In democracy, the citizens have the rights to vote and be voted for. The citizens are mandated to choose their preferred candidate by voting for them through their political party. In fact, this voting process is considered as one of the civic responsibility of every citizen.
NOTE: No one is above the rule of law in the democratic system. If the election outcome does not reflect the mandate of the people, a court of competent jurisdiction can nullify such election.
Democracy is practiced in countries like Nigeria, United States of America, India and South Africa.