Topics in GovernmentOne-party system explained with its advantages and disadvantages What is Democracy? Definitions of Democracy Types of Government Arms of Government: Functions of the Executive, Legislature and Judiciary Scheme of Work for Government, SS1, First Term Scheme of Work for Government, SS1, Second Term Scheme of Work for Government, SS1, Third Term Concept, Advantages and Disadvantages of Multi-Party System Concept, Advantages and Disadvantages of Two-Party System What are pressure groups? Types of pressure group Characteristics of Pressure Group Types of Constitution Scope of Government Characteristics of Government Importance of Government One-party system explained with its types and characteristics Multi-party system explained with its characteristics Party System: Zero Party System Two-Party System explained with its Characteristics Types of Democracy explained
Academic Questions in Government
Which of the following is not a characteristic of the two-party system?
A. It is democratic in nature
B. There isn't a third party
C. The two parties are always dominant in the political terrain
D. The president must emerge from one of both parties
E. It encourages freedom of expression at the press
F. It presents a choice of candidates to the people
In a two-party system, only 2 political parties are present in countries where they are practised.
A type of democracy whereby shura is practiced is termed _____ democracy
A type of democracy whereby the people vote a bill into law is termed _____ democracy
In democracy, every citizen has got the right to vote and be vote for. Also, the principle one man one vote in this regard refers to which characteristic of democracy?
A. Separation of power
B. Freedom of expression
C. Constitutional supremacy
D. Rule of Law
E. Political equality
F. Popular sovereignty
Democracy is defined as a government formed by the consent of the governed.
Which of the following is not a type of democracy?
A. Peripheral democracy
B. Direct democracy
C. Islamic democracy
D. Representative democracy
E. Participatory democracy
F. Authoritarian democracy
Which of the following is not a characteristics of democracy?
A. Kingdom supracy
B. Rule of law
C. Political equality
D. Separation of power
E. Freedom of expression
F. Popular sovereignty
Democracy is considered as one of the systems, forms or types of government. It focuses more on the people (citizens) of a nation or state. The practice of democracy provides an opportunity for each citizen to vote and be voted for, with regards to national and political offices within the state where it is practiced.
The term 'democracy' can be expressed in a variety of ways. Below are some definitions:
Democracy is often considered as the best form of government because it allows the people to choose and perhaps reject their leaders. Rejection of leaders in democracy comes into context when such leaders no longer serve the interest of the people who voted them in. In this regard, such leaders may become impeached by the legislative arm of government and can subsequently face trial at a court of competent jurisdiction. Similarly, we have seen the resignation of leaders who had failed the people in a democratized society.
It is noteworthy to state that democracy assures the citizens of some basic rights that no one can take away from them. These rights are contained in the nation's constitution.
Democracy can take a variety of instance depending on the nation’s geopolitical terrain, ideology or history. For this reason, we have different types (or forms) of democracy. These are:
In order to properly understand the concept of democracy, a knowledge on the characteristics of democracy is very important. Below is a summary of the characteristics of a democratized society:
There is constitutional supremacy.
Please read on the constitution here.
The rule of majority is practiced.
Freedom of expression.
There is political equality among the people.
Please read on gender equality here.
Separation of power among the arms of government.
Please read on the arms of government here.
Popular sovereignty dominates the land.
You can read on the sovereignty of God here.
There is an establishment of the multi-party system.
Please read on multi -party system here.
Presence of the rule of law in a democratized nation.
Respect for human rights.
As stated earlier, democracy is considered as one of the various forms (or types) of government. Having a knowledge on other forms of government is quite important. They are listed below:
Examples of countries practicing democracy include Nigeria, United States of America, India, South Africa and France.
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Amazing facts in Government
Abraham Lincoln, the great human emancipator, freedom fighter and 16th American president was popular for the saying:
Government of the people, by the people and for the people
Abraham Lincoln, the 16th president of the United States of America was a professional wrestler before he assumed the office of the American President. Interestingly, he was only defeated once in his wrestling career
NOTABLE POINTS IN Government
The organs of government (also referred to as arms of government or branches of government) are:
These three arms of government serves as a separation of power.
Separation of Power implies that they carry out their distinct (separate) functions and responsibilities in accordance to the nation's constitution.
The president (who is number one citizen of a country and the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces) is the head of the executive arm of government. It is the responsibility of the executive to enforce or execute the law.
The legislature is a group of elected persons who are required to make law.
In Nigeria, the legislature consist of the bicameral national assembly which are:
The upper house or chamber (Senate)
The lower house or chamber (House of Representative)
The judiciary is an independent arm of government whose power is enforced in the courts.
Like the executive and legislature, they function under the guidance of the constitution.
Below are some functions of the executive arm of government:
They ensure the security of the citizens in a country.
The executive cannot pass laws into the constitution. Instead, they can forward bills to the legislature (or parliament) which will deliberate upon it. (Think of 'bill' as a proposal to be made into law; which will be submitted to the parliament in the form of a draft act).
It is the president's responsibility to provide quality healthcare system, education, good roads (transport system), power, labour and finance through his ministers. For instance, the minister of agriculture oversees the affairs of agriculture in a nation. The ministers may also be accountable to the national assembly with regards to how they go about their ministries.
They bring about maintenance of law and order in a country through the National Security Agencies (NSA) like the police, army, navy and air force.
They prepare and execute the nation’s budget.
The president approves the law into the constitution.
No one is above the constitution, even the president or prime minister.
The constitution is the supreme law in a country, nation or state.
The constitution specifies how the nation or state should be governed.
The constitution gives power to the different organs of government; (that is, the executive, judiciary and legislature).
Juxtaposing the above points, below is a definition for the term constitution:
Constitution is a supreme law that specifies the government of a nation, the distribution of powers to the different organs of government within that nation and the fundamental rights of all her citizens.
Below are some qualities or characteristics of a constitution:
It is neither too rigid nor too flexible.
It accounts for the rule of law, de-centralization of power, an independent Judiciary system and processes of election transparency.
It accounts for the fundament human rights of the people.
It allocates power to the different arms of government.
It must uphold the people’s sovereignty.
It is written systematically.
Dictatorship is one of the forms of government. It can exist either as:
In 1966, Major General Johnson Aguiyi Ironsi became the first military Head of State in Nigeria after he overthrew a democratic and constitutional government (headed by the prime minister; Alhaji Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa)
The above instance is a military form of dictatorship.
A typical example of a civilian dictatorship is Adolf Hitler of Germany and Joseph Stalin of Russia and Georgia