Topics in ICTRouters, Types and Functions of Routers Computer scheme of work, SS1, First Term Computer scheme of work, SS1, Second Term Computer scheme of work, SS1, Third Term Computer Networks and Types of Computer Network Domain Name System: How DNS works and Types of DNS Servers Internet of Things (IoT), How IoT works, its advantages and challenges How to consume less data on your android phone Best Programming Languages to learn Internet and World Wide Web - Notable Dates and Events on Internet Evolution Computer Hardware, Parts and Functions of Computer Hardware
Academic Questions in ICT
The term SOHO is best represented as a _____.
Which of the following is NOT a function of the router?
An example of a network that spans the entire globe is the _____.
A specialized router residing at the boundary of a company's network is called a/an _____.
Which of the following is NOT a type of computer network?
The above diagram best illustrate a _____.
The layer 3 device that move packets between devices, allowing Network communication is called a _____.
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You are able to get to this website because some networking devices have been strategically positioned somewhere around the world. These devices helps to move or route data from one computer (termed client) to another computer (called the server) where the information is stored.
It is important to state that the networking devices (routers) must be properly configured so that the sent data (generally referred to as packets) can arrive at their proper destinations.
Note: Inside the packets are all the Layers 2 - 7 details of the OSI Model of Networking.
You will need some knowledge on Computer Networks and the OSI Model in order to better comprehend the routers.
The hardware (networking) device that moves data (in the form of packets) between different devices (clients and servers); thus allowing network communication are called Routers.
Routers are also called Layer 3 devices. The is because they are found at Layer 3 of the OSI Model of Networking.
Below is an image of the Cisco RV325 Dual Gigabit WAN VPN Router:
We find routers in places where connections to networks are required. For instance; they can be found in banks, campuses, corporate offices, governmental institutions, IT centers and so on.
QUESTION: Now, take a moment to imagine what happens behind the scenes (how data is transferred) when you visit a bank’s branch in order to check your account statement?
Below is the summary to the answer pertaining the above paragraph:
Behind the scenes, the bank’s branch is connected to its Head Quarters (HQ) through some routers.
These routers must have been properly configured by a networking specialist so that communication can happen between the bank’s branch and HQ. For now, think of a network specialist as one who's trained and certified to manage, configure and trouble networks. CCNA for instance; is one of the network certifications from Cisco.
Now, the accountant enters your account details on his or her computer (called the client computer) and hits the enter key.
Note: Your account details becomes a part of the data as contained in the packet. The client computer actually generated this packet from what was entered (input) by the accountant.
The client computer speedily relays the packet (containing the account details and other data) to a router which receives and analyzes it.
If the information in the packets are in sync with the router's configuration, the router forwards it to another router and this process continues until the packets get to its destination (that is: the server computer located in the bank’s HQ).
The server sends the reply; an a reverse process is followed; thanks to the router.
The image below shows a Network Communication System between LANs via the Wide Area Network (WAN):
It's important you understand the concept behind Computer Networks.
Note the following on Routers:
1. It is the function of the router to receive, analyze and route incoming packets to the desired or destination network.
2. The router can drop packets when some configurations are not properly met by the incoming packets. This is probably why you can't access the internet from your service provider when you are yet to subscribe for a data package.
3. The router receives, analyzes and routes incoming packets from it's ingress interface to another network through it' egress interface.
Ingress interface is the port on which packets enters the router.
Egress interface is the port on which packets exit the router.
4. The router can also drop packets according to it's Quality of Service (QoS) configuration.
Note: Cisco made it's first Router in 1978.
Routers generally perform the followiing functions:
Routers carry out their routing functions by creating a Routing Table in its memory. Also, Logical Addressing are associated with routers.
Below is a summary of the types of router:
A wired router connects directly to end devices (e.g computers and VoIP phones) or intermediary devices (switches and other routers) through cables at one end. On the other end, it is connected via a cable to a modem for receiving internet data packets.
Wired routers typically supports Network Address Translation (NAT).
Network Address Translation is a concept that allows multiple end devices to connect to the internet through a shared single Internet Protocol Address (IP Address).
Lastly, wired routers have firewalls built within them to filter traffic (packets) coming from or going to malicious network destinations.
Note: The previous image (Cisco RV325 router) is a wired router.
Unlike the wired router, a wireless router connects to end devices without any form of cables. To achieve this, it has antennae which broadcast wirelessly; while also receiving signals from end devices.
Wireless routers are used for establishing a Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN). They also support NAT and have firewalls within them.
These are standby routers that commence their function when the active router fails.
Virtual routers utilizes a protocol called “Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol” (VRRP).
In Cisco routers, this virtual routing protocol is called the "Hot Standby Router Protocol" (HSRP)
In an attempt to achieve 100% uptime, virtual routers are recommended; especially in institutions that push critical data; for instance, financial and medical data.
They can be wired or wireless. They are located at the edge of networks. This implies that an edge or gateway router is the last router that connects a company to the internet.
They can also be wired or wireless.
The core routers are present within the Local Area Network (LAN), distributing data packet within it.
As an instance, the core routers are responsible for routing traffic between two departments (let’s say human resources and sales departments) within the same organization and building.
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Amazing facts in ICT
Smoking near an Apple (Mac) computer voids the warranty.
When you add /4 to the end of Facebook's URL, it will take you to Mark Zuckerberg.
You can try it on you own; or better still, try the link below:
Apple iPad retina display is actually manufactured by Samsung
The big five tech companies are GOOGLE, AMAZON, FACEBOOK, APPLE and MICROSOFT
NOTABLE POINTS IN ICT
Computer Network is a group of computers that are linked to each other such that they can share resources.
Generally, these groups of computers that form a network are called nodes.
Some of these nodes will function to store information which will be served to other computers. The nodes that function to store and serve such information are known as servers.
Some of the computers (nodes) will request information from the server. The computers that functions to request information from the server are known as clients.
The internet and the World Wide Web (www) IS NOT the same thing.
The internet is formed from the joining or linking of different networks.
For instance, Google's network, Facebook's network and Yahoo's network are among the many other networks that make up the internet.
World Wide Web on the other hand is a collection of linked pages (for instance, this page you're on).
There are actually billions of linked pages in various servers around the world.
You require the internet and a web browser to get to access the World Wide Web
Types of Networks based on Geographical size
Personal Area Network (PAN): An instance is a Bluetooth connection between two devices.
Local Area Network (LAN): This is the network under a single administrative control and usually within a building.
Campus Area Network (CAN): This network connects various devices within a campus or college
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN): This network connects two offices or companies within a city.
Wide Area Network (WAN): This network connects devices throughout the globe. The internet is a typical example of a WAN.
Functions of a Router