Postural defects that affect the spine or backbone

len Alfred Ajibola - 04th September, 2021 @ 12:21 PM

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Academic Questions in PHE

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The following are postural defects except _____.

  • A. Joint Legs

  • B. Forward Head Posture

  • C. Flatfoot

  • D. Genu Valgum

  • E. Uneven Shoulders

  • F. Bowlegs

Protruding abdomen - Len Academy

The above image (protruding abdomen) is not a postural defect.

  • A. True

  • B. False

The tennis grand slam tournament played on a grass court is the _____.

  • A. US Open

  • B. Australian Open

  • C. Wimbledon

  • D. French Open

  • E. Italian Open

  • F. English Open

Which of the following sport personnels isn't a notable female tennis player? (The firstname had been abbreviated in the options below).

  • A. S. Tsitsipas
  • B. M. Navratilova

  • C. M. Hinges

  • D. M. Sharapova

  • E. V. Williams

  • F. N. Osaka

Which of the following isn't a measure to prevent domestic accidents?

  • A. Alertness and use of common sense when doing things

  • B. Drugs should be kept of out reach of children

  • C. All electrical issues should be fixed by parents only

  • D. Living rooms, rest rooms, stores, bathrooms and kitchen should be properly lighted

  • E. Babies should be closely monitored by parents

  • F. Families should be oriented on the basic home safety rules

Which of the following is false concerning domestic accidents?

  • A. They are preventable

  • B. They always occur inside our homes

  • C. They occur within our environment

  • D. Food can lead to domestic accidents

  • E. Carelessness is a major cause of domestic accidents

  • F. According to reports, it is considered as one of the 4 major causes of death around the world

Which of the following is not an effect of pollution?

  • A. Contamination of food by disease vectors

  • B. Eutrophication

  • C. Formation of acid rain

  • D. Afforestation

  • E. Global warming

  • F. Demise of aquatic flora and fauna

The process of contaminating the atmosphere by introducing harmful and toxic substances into it is termed _____.

  • A. Pollution

  • B. Wind Pollution

  • C. Air pollution

  • D. Lithospheric pollution

  • E. Hydrospheric pollution

  • F. Breeze pollution



Read more on its smart academic features here

What is posture?

Posture is defined as the ways and manner a person positions his or her body based on how they move, sit, stand, bend, walk and lie.

A person is said to exhibit a bad posture when they move their body, sit, stand, bend, walk, and lie improperly. However, understand that postural defects can be either natural or artificial. Also, they may result from defects in the spine, spinal column or backbone.

Please read the introduction to posture here.


Postural defects that affect the spine

Below are postural defects that affect the spine or backbone:


  • Scoliosis

A person is said to have scoliosis when the spine is slightly tilted to the left or right or both sides.

Scoliosis and Kyphosis

The curvature of the spine can occur at the upper back or thoracic region (thoracic scoliosis) or lower back or lumber region (lumbar scoliosis).

The cause of scoliosis may be hereditary or idiopathic. The term idiopathic imply that the cause is unknown.

Please read on skeletal materials here.


  • Kyphosis

A person who has kyphosis is often considered to have a hunchback.

Scoliosis and Kyphosis

In kyphosis, there is an outward slope or curvature on the upper region of the backbone (that is; the posterior thoracic region of the spine). This consequently brings about a conspicuous rounded upper back with a forward leaning shoulders.

Hunchback is more common in aged people although younger people can also have it.

You can read on the bones of the human skeleton here.


  • Lordosis

Also called saddle back or swayback, lordosis is a result of an inward curvature of the backbone in its upper cervical region (around the neck) and lower lumbar region.

Lordosis - Len Academy

Unlike kyphosis which appears in the upper back thoracic region, lordosis occurs in the lower back or lumbar region, and may result in a more conspicuous buttocks if the inward spine curvature at the lower back is excessive.


  • Kypholordosis


As the name imply, it is a combination of both kyphosis and lordosis. It presents a curvature in the spine at the posterior upper and lower region of the back.

Please read on the type of bones here.


  • Kyphoscoliosis

A person with kyphoscoliosis will have both kyphosis and scoliosis simultaneously. The spine will therefore have an abnormal curve on two planes.


The spine curvature in kyphoscoliosis is typically seen side by side and anterior-posteriorly (that is, front and back).

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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 10 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.

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