Biology

Midbrain: Division and Functions of the Midbrain

len Alfred Ajibola - Thu, 06th February, 2020 @ 14:24

Topics in Biology

Ecological pyramid explained with its importance and limitations Hindbrain: Medulla Oblongata and its features Food web explained with examples Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 2nd Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 3rd Term Seminal Vesicles and Bulbourethral Glands as Male Accessory Sex Organs Scrotum and its contents: Testicles Brain: Introduction to the Human Brain Forebrain: Lobes of the Cerebrum and their Functions Cerebellum: Parts and Functions of the Cerebellum Midbrain: Division and Functions of the Midbrain Negative Feedback Mechanism in Homeostasis Arterial Disorders: Characteristics and Causes of Arterial Disorders Types of Desert and their Characteristics Characteristics of Tropical Rainforest Swamp Forest: What are Swamp Forests? Characteristics of Swamp Forests Savanna: Savanna and Grassland explained Savanna - Types of Savanna


Academic Questions in Biology

Please check out our Test Your Knowledge page to see all Questions and Answers

In a food chain, the primary consumers are classified under trophic level  _____.

  • A. Zero

  • B. One

  • C. Two

  • D. Three

  • E. Four

  • F. Five

Cold blooded animals are referred to as _____.

  • A. Homeotherms

  • B. Endotherms

  • C. Poilokitherms

  • D. Ectotherms

  • E. Thermotherms

  • F. None of the above

All reptiles are vertebrates.

  • A. True

  • B. False

_____ cells are responsible for the formation of osteoblasts.

  • A. Osteocytes
  • B. Chondrocytes
  • C. Chondroblasts
  • D. Osteoclasts
  • E. Osteoprogenitor cells
  • F. Osteoblastic

_____ is a bone that constitute the axial skeleton.

  • A. Clavicle
  • B. Scapula
  • C. Patella
  • D. Radius
  • E. Sternum
  • F. Femur

Which of the following is false concerning cartilages and bones?

  • A. Cartilage does not have a direct blood supply while bones have direct blood supply
  • B. The process of ossification replaces a cartilage to bone
  • C. The protein that makes up cartilage is called chondrin while that that makes up bone is called ossein
  • D. Cartilage grows from both ends while bones grow from one of its epiphysis
  • E. They both have living cells within them
  • F. Haversian system is absent in cartilage but present in bones

A diagram showing the movement of energy through a food chain is called a _____.

  • A. Food Chain
  • B. Food Web
  • C. Food Energy
  • D. Food Link
  • E. Food Flow
  • F. Food Pyramid

Which of the following is NOT a part of the wrist bones (or carpal bones)?

  • A. Cuboid
  • B. Scaphoid
  • C. Hamate
  • D. Triquetral
  • E. Pisiform
  • F. Trapezium

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Midbrain:

The midbrain is a division of the brain alongside the forebrain and hindbrain. It is also referred to as the mesencephalon and it connects the forebrain to the hindbrain.

Please read on the Anatomy and Functions of the Forebrain here.

Present within the midbrain are various nuclei, nerves and tracts, each with an array of functions. In addition, visibly present on the midbrain are 4 bumps or swellings on its posterior (back) surface. These are referred to as the colliculi and are made up of aggregated neurons.

Note: The colliculi are separated into two pairs. These are:

  1. The upper pairs known as the Superior Colliculi. Functionally, they direct the reactions of animals towards environmental stimuli.
    Please on Irritability and other Characteristics of Living Organisms here.
  2. The lower pairs known as the Inferior Colliculi. Functionally, they are connected with hearing.

The image below shows the midbrain's colliculi:
Midbrain - Len Academy

Please read on the Cerebellum, its Lobes and Functions here.


Divisions of the Midbrain

The midbrain is divided into 3 parts. These are:

  1. Tectum: The colliculi (as explained above) are present on the tectum. They are shown in the diagram above.

  2. Tegmentum: The tegmentum (which means 'hood' in Latin) is a layer of the midbrain (and hidbrain) that runs down the length of the brainstem. It's various nervous connections has shown to keep humans alert.

    The tegmentum consists of the iron-rich red nucleus (which appears pink in colour) and the periaqueductal grey (which is a composed mainly of grey matter).

    Note: Functionally, the iron-rich red nucleus play a role in the body's coordination and movements. Also, the periaqueductal grey has proven to be important in the suppression of pain.
    You may read on the Beauty of Suffering here.


  3. Cerebral Pundicles: They are paired structures that extends from the cerebral hemispheres and eventually unites (or converge) at a part of the hindbrain called pons. Both cerebral Pundicles are separated anteriorly by interpeduncular fossa before their convergence posteriorly. Please see the image above.
    Please read on the Introduction to the Human Brain here.

Functions of the Midbrain

Some of the important functions of the Midbrain include:

  1. Movement of the eyes.

  2. It regulates the dilation of the pupil.

  3. It regulates sleep and wake cycles.

  4. It controls our attentions and behaviour through the regulation of dopamine production.
    You can read on the Uniqueness of Man here.

  5. It assists in the regulation of temperature.
    Please read on Homeostasis here.

  6. It regulates muscular movements.
    Please read on all 206 Bones of the Human Body here.

  7. It is an important part of the memory.

  8. It is important in the hearing process.

  9. It helps to control our responses to sight.

  10. Arousal.
    Please read on the Male Reproductive System here.

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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.


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When the leaves of the lima bean's leaves are eaten by insects, the plant gives off a substance that signals parasitic wasps to swam in, destroying its enemies (the leaf-eating insects) in the process

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NOTABLE POINTS IN Biology

For a thing to be considered living, it must possess all the basic characteristics of life. These include:

  1. Movement

  2. Respiration

  3. Nutrition

  4. Irritability or Sensitivity

  5. Growth

  6. Excretion

  7. Reproduction

  8. Death

  9. Adaptation

  10. Competition

Please read the explanations on all the basic characteristics of life here

During strenuous exercises like sprinting or running, your body may actually work in the shortage of oxygen. During this time, your body owes oxygen (called oxygen debt) and it must be replenished or repayed after the exercise is stopped. This is why you breathe excess of oxygen after you stopped the exercise.

This is the concept of anaerobic respiration

Food Chain - Len Academy

A food chain is a diagram that shows the relationship between plants and animals within a habitat on the basis of how they rely on each other for food.

Note: Habitat is a place where an organism live. It is of three types:

  • Terrestrial (Land)
  • Aquatic (Water)
  • Arboreal (Treetops)

You can read on food chain here

The term Biology originated from two Greek words. They are:

  • Bios: means life.

  • Logos: means knowledge or to study.

Biology can therefore be defined as the study of life

Anything that has life is generally considered as a living organism (or organism). All living organisms must be able to carry the following activities:

  1. Movement

  2. Respiration

  3. Nutrition

  4. Irritability or Sensitivity

  5. Growth

  6. Excretion

  7. Reproduction

  8. Death

  9. Adaptation

  10. Competition

The above listed points are often regarded as the basic characteristics of life. You can memorize them using the acronym -> MR. NIGER DAC.

You can read on the introduction to biology and the basic characteristics of life here

The gas used in the manufacture of food by plants is Carbon dioxide or Carbon(IV)oxide or CO2

Plants manufacture food through a process called photosynthesis.

Please read on photosynthesis here

It is noteworthy to state that plants are the only orgnisms that take away CO2 from the atmosphere