Biology

Cerebellum: Parts and Functions of the Cerebellum

len Alfred Ajibola - Thu, 06th February, 2020 @ 14:28

Topics in Biology

Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 2nd Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 3rd Term Seminal Vesicles and Bulbourethral Glands as Male Accessory Sex Organs Male Reproductive System: Scrotum and its contents Brain: Introduction to the Human Brain Forebrain: Lobes of the Cerebrum and their Functions Cerebellum: Parts and Functions of the Cerebellum Midbrain: Division and Functions of the Midbrain Negative Feedback Mechanism in Homeostasis Arterial Disorders: Characteristics and Causes of Arterial Disorders Types of Desert and their Characteristics Characteristics of Tropical Rainforest Swamp Forest: What are Swamp Forests? Characteristics of Swamp Forests Savanna: Savanna and Grassland explained Savanna - Types of Savanna Tropical Savanna and Temperate Savanna with their Characteristics Introduction to Biomes: What is a Biome? Importance of Swamp Forests


Academic Questions in Biology

Please check out our Test Your Knowledge page to see all Questions and Answers

Which of the following is a category of long bones?

  • A. Stunted long bones
  • B. Reduced long bones
  • C. Giant long bones
  • D. Bended long bones
  • E. Curved long bones
  • F. Elongated long bones

The end product of photosynthesis is _____.

  • A. O2
  • B. C​​​​​​2​​​​C5OH
  • C. H2​​​​​O
  • D. CO2
  • E. C6H12O6
  • F. C2H5COOH

The above diagram illustrates a _____.

  • A. Food Chain
  • B. Food Web
  • C. Food Pyramid
  • D. Food Link
  • E. Food Hub
  • F. Food zone

The living cells that makes up cartilages are called _____.

  • A. osteocytes
  • B. osteoblasts
  • C. osteoclasts
  • D. chondroblasts
  • E. chrondocytes
  • F. Osteoprogenitor cells

Which of the following statement is incorrect with regards to chitin?

  • A. Ecdysis is a term associated with chitin
  • B. It is a skeletal material
  • C. It is a type of skeleton
  • D. It is present outside the organism
  • E. It does not grow when the organism grows
  • It is present in ants

Which of the following is NOT a function of the human skeleton?

  • A. Gives Shape
  • B. Provides Protection
  • C. Aids in Locomotion
  • D. Supports Movement
  • E. Assists in Inhalation and Exahalation
  • F. None of the above
  • G. All of the above

Organisms that manufacture their own food through the help of sunlight or chemicals are best referred to as _____.

  • A. autotrophs
  • B. chemosynthetic
  • C. photosynthentic
  • D. chemoautotrophs
  • E. photoautotrophs
  • F. chemoautotrophs

Organisms that begins a food chain and also manufacture their food through photosynthesis are best referred to as _____.

  • A. heterotrophs
  • B. autotrophs
  • C. homotrophs
  • D. producers
  • E. photosynthetic
  • F. chemosynthetic

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Cerebellum:

The cerebellum is that part of the brain that plays a vital role in the body's voluntary (and physical) movements. It is located at the posterior part of the brain, just below the occipital and temporal lobes of the cerebrum. It's also located posteriorly at the same level with the pons. This is shown in the image below:
Cerebellum - Len Academy

Please read on the Cerebrum, it's Anatomy, Lobes and Functions here.

The cerebellum (sometimes referred to as the little brain) accounts for about 10% of the brain's size and it consists of almost half of the neurones (brain cells). It's also divided into two cerebellar hemispheres by a structure known as vermis present in its midline. This is shown in the image below:
Cerebellar Hemispheres - Len Academy

Please read on the Introduction to the Human Brain here.

Note: The surface of the cerebellum is referred to as the cerebellar cortex and it's composed of gray matter.

The cerebral medulla is located underneath the cerebellar cortex and it's made up of white matter. Embedded within the white matter are the 4 cerebellar nuclei. These are:

  1. Dentate Nuclei
  2. Emboliform Nuclei
  3. Globose Nuclei
  4. Fastigi Nuclei

You can read on the Mid Brain and its Functions here.

The Cerebellum is lobed and this gives its surfaces a distinctive appearance. It can therefore be divided into 3 lobes. These are:

  1. Flocculonodular Lobe
  2. Anterior Lobe
  3. Posterior Lobe

Note: The flocculonodular and anterior lobes can been seen above the primary fissure while the posterior lobe lies below the primary fissure. This is shown in the image below:
Lobes of the Cerebellum - Len Academy

Most often, the signals coming into the cerebrum are immediately processed and directed out as output via an appropriate nerve. This is termed feedforward processing.

Feedforward processing implies that the internal transmission of nervous impulses within the cerebellum is minimal.

You can read on the Uniqueness of Man here.

Functionally, the cerebellum receives sensory information from the spinal cord and other parts of the brain (e.g mid brain). It also regulates the motor movements of the body thereby bringing about proper coordination, balance, posture and speech. For this reason, the cerebellum is often considered a motor structure (since cerebellar damage leads to impairments in motor function like movement and posture).

Please read on Posture and Postural Defects here.

Note: Examination of damages to the the cerebellum has proven to be the most important clues to its function.

When the cerebellum becomes damaged in humans or animals, they tend to show problems associated with motor functions. To this end, precision movements are lost in such animals (or humans). Also they begin to show an uncoordinated, random, or poorly timed muscular activities and movements.

Please read on the Functions of the Human Skeleton here.


Functions of the Cerebellum

  1. It coordinates voluntary movement of the body and muscular activity.

  2. It coordinates posture and balance in humans. A typical examples of an impairment of this function is seen during the intake of alcohol. The person involved loses balance because alcohol impairs the coordination of posture and balance by the cerebellum.
    Please read on the Homeostasis and Negative Feedback Mechanism here.

  3. The cerebellum is crucial in the learning of new skills (that is; motor learning) through a trial and error process. Such skills will include " learning to ride a bicycle or throwing a ball into a basketball net".
    You can read on the Game of Basketball here.

  4. It controls Speech and bodily coordination.

  5. The cerebellum plays an active role in cognitive functions like memory and learning.
    Attempt Len Academy Questions on various Subjects here.

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len

Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.


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Amazing facts in Biology

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All babies are born with blue eyes

Research made at the University of Vienna suggested that yawning may play an essential role in cooling the brains

All voluntary and concious activity of right handed people are controlled from the left part or hemisphere of the brain

A snail can actually sleep for 3 years 😁

An adult human being is composed of about 60% water. In fact, a newly born baby is composed of about 80% of water. This will drop to 65% after a year and finally to about 60% as the child ages

Without saliva, food can never be enjoyed. Food becomes tasteless since saliva is needed to dissolve the chemicals present in food onto the tongue’s taste buds.

Saliva also contains an enzyme called salivary amylase or "ptyalin" which helps to digest cooked starch to maltose. Maltose is a double sugar or disaccharide. Please read on sugars here


NOTABLE POINTS IN Biology

For a thing to be considered Living, it must possess all the Basic Characteristics of Life. These include:

  1. Movement

  2. Respiration

  3. Nutrition

  4. Irritability or Sensitivity

  5. Growth

  6. Excretion

  7. Reproduction

  8. Death

  9. Adaptation

  10. Competition

Please read the explanations on all the Basic Characteristics of Life here

During strenuous exercises like sprinting or 🏃 running, your body may actually work in the shortage of oxygen. During this time, your body owes oxygen (called oxygen debt) and it must be replenished or repayed after the exercise is stopped. This is why you breathe excess of oxygen after you stopped the exercise.

This is the concept of anaerobic respiration

A food Chain is a diagram that shows the relationship between plants and animals within a habitat on the basis of how they rely on each other for food.

Note: Habitat is a place where an organism live. It is of three types:

  • Terrestrial (Land)
  • Aquatic (Water)
  • Arboreal (🌲 Treetops)

You can read on Food Chain here

The term Biology originated from two Greek words. They are:

  • Bios: means life. 
  • Logos: means knowledge or to study.

Biology can therefore be defined is the study of life

Anything that has life is generally considered as a living organism (or organism) 🌱🐐🐓. All living organisms must be able to carry the following activities:

  1. Movement
  2. Respiration
  3. Nutrition
  4. Irritability or Sensitivity
  5. Growth
  6. Excretion
  7. Reproduction
  8. Death
  9. Adaptation
  10. Competition

The above listed points are often regarded as the basic characteristics of life. You can memorize them using the acronym (MR. NIGER DAC).

You can read on the introduction to Biology and the basic characteristics of life here

The gas used in the manufacture of food by plants is Carbon dioxide or Carbon(IV)oxide or CO2. 

Plants manufacture food through a process called photosynthesis. Please read on photosynthesis here

Note: Plants are the only orgnisms that take away CO2 from the atmosphere