Topics in BiologyBiology Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 2nd Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 3rd Term Seminal Vesicles and Bulbourethral Glands as Male Accessory Sex Organs Male Reproductive System: Scrotum and its contents Brain: Introduction to the Human Brain Forebrain: Lobes of the Cerebrum and their Functions Cerebellum: Parts and Functions of the Cerebellum Midbrain: Division and Functions of the Midbrain Negative Feedback Mechanism in Homeostasis Arterial Disorders: Characteristics and Causes of Arterial Disorders Types of Desert and their Characteristics Characteristics of Tropical Rainforest Swamp Forest: What are Swamp Forests? Characteristics of Swamp Forests Savanna: Savanna and Grassland explained Savanna - Types of Savanna Tropical Savanna and Temperate Savanna with their Characteristics Introduction to Biomes: What is a Biome? Importance of Swamp Forests
Academic Questions in Biology
Which of the following is a category of long bones?
The end product of photosynthesis is _____.
The above diagram illustrates a _____.
The living cells that makes up cartilages are called _____.
Which of the following statement is incorrect with regards to chitin?
Which of the following is NOT a function of the human skeleton?
Organisms that manufacture their own food through the help of sunlight or chemicals are best referred to as _____.
Organisms that begins a food chain and also manufacture their food through photosynthesis are best referred to as _____.
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The cerebellum is that part of the brain that plays a vital role in the body's voluntary (and physical) movements. It is located at the posterior part of the brain, just below the occipital and temporal lobes of the cerebrum. It's also located posteriorly at the same level with the pons. This is shown in the image below:
The cerebellum (sometimes referred to as the little brain) accounts for about 10% of the brain's size and it consists of almost half of the neurones (brain cells). It's also divided into two cerebellar hemispheres by a structure known as vermis present in its midline. This is shown in the image below:
Note: The surface of the cerebellum is referred to as the cerebellar cortex and it's composed of gray matter.
The cerebral medulla is located underneath the cerebellar cortex and it's made up of white matter. Embedded within the white matter are the 4 cerebellar nuclei. These are:
The Cerebellum is lobed and this gives its surfaces a distinctive appearance. It can therefore be divided into 3 lobes. These are:
Note: The flocculonodular and anterior lobes can been seen above the primary fissure while the posterior lobe lies below the primary fissure. This is shown in the image below:
Most often, the signals coming into the cerebrum are immediately processed and directed out as output via an appropriate nerve. This is termed feedforward processing.
Feedforward processing implies that the internal transmission of nervous impulses within the cerebellum is minimal.
Functionally, the cerebellum receives sensory information from the spinal cord and other parts of the brain (e.g mid brain). It also regulates the motor movements of the body thereby bringing about proper coordination, balance, posture and speech. For this reason, the cerebellum is often considered a motor structure (since cerebellar damage leads to impairments in motor function like movement and posture).
Note: Examination of damages to the the cerebellum has proven to be the most important clues to its function.
When the cerebellum becomes damaged in humans or animals, they tend to show problems associated with motor functions. To this end, precision movements are lost in such animals (or humans). Also they begin to show an uncoordinated, random, or poorly timed muscular activities and movements.
It coordinates voluntary movement of the body and muscular activity.
It coordinates posture and balance in humans. A typical examples of an impairment of this function is seen during the intake of alcohol. The person involved loses balance because alcohol impairs the coordination of posture and balance by the cerebellum.
Please read on the Homeostasis and Negative Feedback Mechanism here.
The cerebellum is crucial in the learning of new skills (that is; motor learning) through a trial and error process. Such skills will include " learning to ride a bicycle or throwing a ball into a basketball net".
You can read on the Game of Basketball here.
It controls Speech and bodily coordination.
The cerebellum plays an active role in cognitive functions like memory and learning.
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Amazing facts in Biology
Male Seahorses actually give birth to their young ones, NOT the female
All babies are born with blue eyes
Research made at the University of Vienna suggested that yawning may play an essential role in cooling the brains
All voluntary and concious activity of right handed people are controlled from the left part or hemisphere of the brain
A snail can actually sleep for 3 years 😁
An adult human being is composed of about 60% water. In fact, a newly born baby is composed of about 80% of water. This will drop to 65% after a year and finally to about 60% as the child ages
Without saliva, food can never be enjoyed. Food becomes tasteless since saliva is needed to dissolve the chemicals present in food onto the tongue’s taste buds.
Saliva also contains an enzyme called salivary amylase or "ptyalin" which helps to digest cooked starch to maltose. Maltose is a double sugar or disaccharide. Please read on sugars here
NOTABLE POINTS IN Biology
For a thing to be considered Living, it must possess all the Basic Characteristics of Life. These include:
Irritability or Sensitivity
During strenuous exercises like sprinting or 🏃 running, your body may actually work in the shortage of oxygen. During this time, your body owes oxygen (called oxygen debt) and it must be replenished or repayed after the exercise is stopped. This is why you breathe excess of oxygen after you stopped the exercise.
This is the concept of anaerobic respiration
A food Chain is a diagram that shows the relationship between plants and animals within a habitat on the basis of how they rely on each other for food.
Note: Habitat is a place where an organism live. It is of three types:
The term Biology originated from two Greek words. They are:
Biology can therefore be defined is the study of life
Anything that has life is generally considered as a living organism (or organism) 🌱🐐🐓. All living organisms must be able to carry the following activities:
The above listed points are often regarded as the basic characteristics of life. You can memorize them using the acronym (MR. NIGER DAC).
The gas used in the manufacture of food by plants is Carbon dioxide or Carbon(IV)oxide or CO2.
Plants manufacture food through a process called photosynthesis. Please read on photosynthesis here
Note: Plants are the only orgnisms that take away CO2 from the atmosphere