Topics in BiologyHindbrain: Medulla Oblongata and its features Food web explained with examples Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 2nd Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 3rd Term Seminal Vesicles and Bulbourethral Glands as Male Accessory Sex Organs Male Reproductive System: Scrotum and its contents Brain: Introduction to the Human Brain Forebrain: Lobes of the Cerebrum and their Functions Cerebellum: Parts and Functions of the Cerebellum Midbrain: Division and Functions of the Midbrain Negative Feedback Mechanism in Homeostasis Arterial Disorders: Characteristics and Causes of Arterial Disorders Types of Desert and their Characteristics Characteristics of Tropical Rainforest Swamp Forest: What are Swamp Forests? Characteristics of Swamp Forests Savanna: Savanna and Grassland explained Savanna - Types of Savanna Tropical Savanna and Temperate Savanna with their Characteristics
Academic Questions in Biology
Which of the following is NOT a part of the wrist bones (or carpal bones)?
The statements below are true concerning arteries except _____.
A. The arterial wall has 4 layers
B. Tunica Adventitia is the outermost layer of an artery
C. Aorta is the largest artery in the human body
D. Pulmunary artery conveys deoxygenated blood
E. Internal bleeding will occur when a deeply located artery is broken
F. Arterial vascular disorders are worsened in people with diabetes and renal failure
The following statements are true concerning blood vessels except _____.
A. They are comprised of arteries, veins and capillaries
B. Problems associated with blood vessels are called vascular disorders
C. All veins carry blood towards the heart
D. Capillaries are found at cellular level
E. Arteries usually divide to form arterioles
F. Arterioles give rise to capillaries
The above diagram shows a _____.
A. Food Chain
B. Food Web
C. Food Flow
D. Food Energy
E. Food Pyramid
F. Food Hierarchy
Anything that elicits a physiological response from an organism is termed _____.
F. Action potential
Which of the following molecule is utilized directly as energy in the human body?
D. Adenosine Mono Phosphate
E. Adenosine Di Phosphate
F. Adenosine Tri Phosphate
Which of the following is not a basic characteristics of life?
The final organisms in a food chain are best referred to as _____.
E. Tertiary consumers
F. Quatenary consumers
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The forebrain, also called the prosencephalon is the largest part of the brain. It consists of the cerebrum, thalamus and hypothalamus.
The cerebrum is the largest part of the forebrain (and the entire brain itself). It occupies the largest portion of the cranium and is divided into two halves which are termed cerebral hemispheres. (They are the right and left cerebral hemispheres). Both hemispheres are joined by a bundle of fibres called Corpus Callosum.
The image below shows both cerebral hemispheres and the corpus callosum:
Note: A function of the corpus callosum is to transmit nervous information between both cerebral hemispheres.
Each cerebral hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body; and are composed of four distinct lobes. The image below shows the 4 lobes of the cerebrum alongside a summary of their functions:
The cerebral lobes are:
Note: Present in the temporal lobe of the brain are the hippocampus, amygdala, epithalamus, thalamus, hypothalamus, cingulate gyrus, mammillary body and parahippocampal gyri. Together, these are referred to as the Limbic System and they are crucial for the processing functions of the memory.
The image below shows the Limbic System of the Temporal Lobe:
The thalamus is a small structure found between the cerebral cortex and the midbrain. It is a heterogeneous assembly of organized nuclei composed mainly of gray matter.
The hypothalamus is a portion of the forebrain made up small group of nuclei with various functions.
The hypothalamus is located just below the thalamus and above the pituitary gland. This is shown in the diagram below:
The main function of the hypothalamus is to create a link between the nervous system and endocrine system via the pituitary gland. For this reason, it is crucial in homeostatic roles via the release of hormones and temperature regulation.
Initiation and coordination of voluntary bodily activities. For instance, the fine control of hand and feet movements during sewing.
It performs higher functions like vision and hearing.
It controls speech and learning.
It acts as a center of emotion.
It controls reasoning and remembering.
It plays a part in mood control.
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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.
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Amazing facts in Biology
Male Seahorses actually give birth to their young ones, NOT the female
All babies are born with blue eyes
Research made at the University of Vienna suggested that yawning may play an essential role in cooling the brains
All voluntary and concious activity of right handed people are controlled from the left part or hemisphere of the brain
A snail can actually sleep for 3 years 😁
An adult human being is composed of about 60% water. In fact, a newly born baby is composed of about 80% of water. This will drop to 65% after a year and finally to about 60% as the child ages
Without saliva, food can never be enjoyed. Food becomes tasteless since saliva is needed to dissolve the chemicals present in food onto the tongue’s taste buds.
Saliva also contains an enzyme called salivary amylase or ptyalin which helps to digest cooked starch to maltose.
Maltose is a double sugar or disaccharide.
NOTABLE POINTS IN Biology
For a thing to be considered Living, it must possess all the Basic Characteristics of Life. These include:
Irritability or Sensitivity
During strenuous exercises like sprinting or 🏃 running, your body may actually work in the shortage of oxygen. During this time, your body owes oxygen (called oxygen debt) and it must be replenished or repayed after the exercise is stopped. This is why you breathe excess of oxygen after you stopped the exercise.
This is the concept of anaerobic respiration
A food Chain is a diagram that shows the relationship between plants and animals within a habitat on the basis of how they rely on each other for food.
Note: Habitat is a place where an organism live. It is of three types:
The term Biology originated from two Greek words. They are:
Biology can therefore be defined is the study of life
Anything that has life is generally considered as a living organism (or organism) 🌱🐐🐓. All living organisms must be able to carry the following activities:
The above listed points are often regarded as the basic characteristics of life. You can memorize them using the acronym (MR. NIGER DAC).
The gas used in the manufacture of food by plants is Carbon dioxide or Carbon(IV)oxide or CO2
Plants manufacture food through a process called photosynthesis.
Note: Plants are the only orgnisms that take away CO2 from the atmosphere