Topics in BiologyTropical savanna explained with its characteristics Ecological pyramid explained with its importance and limitations Hindbrain: Medulla Oblongata and its features Food web explained with examples Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 2nd Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 3rd Term Male accessory sex organs: Seminal vesicles and bulbourethral glands Scrotum and its contents: Testicles Brain: Introduction to the human brain Forebrain: Lobes of the cerebrum and their functions Cerebellum: Parts and functions of the cerebellum Midbrain: Division and functions of the midbrain Negative feedback mechanism in homeostasis Arterial disorders explained with their causes Types of desert and their characteristics Characteristics of tropical rainforest Swamp forest: What are swamp forests? Characteristics of swamp forests Savanna biome: Concept of the savanna
Academic Questions in Biology
In a food chain, the primary consumers are classified under trophic level _____.
Cold blooded animals are referred to as _____.
F. None of the above
All reptiles are vertebrates.
_____ cells are responsible for the formation of osteoblasts.
_____ is a bone that constitute the axial skeleton.
Which of the following is false concerning cartilages and bones?
A diagram showing the movement of energy through a food chain is called a _____.
Which of the following is NOT a part of the wrist bones (or carpal bones)?
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The forebrain, also called the prosencephalon is the largest part of the brain. It consists of the cerebrum, thalamus and hypothalamus.
The cerebrum is the largest part of the forebrain (and the entire brain itself). It occupies the largest portion of the cranium and is divided into two halves termed cerebral hemispheres. They are appropriately named the right and left cerebral hemispheres. Both hemispheres are joined by a bundle of fibres called corpus callosum.
The image below shows both cerebral hemispheres and the corpus callosum.
Note: A function of the corpus callosum is to transmit nervous information between both cerebral hemispheres.
Each cerebral hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body; and are composed of four distinct lobes. The image below shows the 4 lobes of the cerebrum alongside a summary of their functions.
The cerebral lobes are:
Present in the temporal lobe of the brain are the hippocampus, amygdala, epithalamus, thalamus, hypothalamus, cingulate gyrus, mammillary body and parahippocampal gyri. Together, these are referred to as the limbic system, and they are crucial for the processing functions of the memory.
The image below shows the limbic system of the temporal lobe.
The thalamus is a small structure found between the cerebral cortex and the midbrain. It is a heterogeneous assembly of organized nuclei composed mainly of gray matter.
The hypothalamus is a portion of the forebrain made up small group of nuclei with various functions.
The hypothalamus is located just below the thalamus and above the pituitary gland. This is shown in the diagram below.
The main function of the hypothalamus is to create a link between the nervous system and endocrine system through the pituitary gland. For this reason, it is crucial in homeostatic roles via the release of hormones and temperature regulation.
From the explanations so far on the cerebral hemispheres, below is a functional summary of the cerebrum:
Initiation and coordination of voluntary bodily activities. These will include a fine control of the hands and feet movements during sewing.
It performs higher functions like vision and hearing.
It controls speech and learning.
It acts as a center of emotion.
It controls reasoning and remembering.
It plays a part in mood control.
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Amazing facts in Biology
99% of a panda's diet is bamboo. They may eat fish or other small animals occasionally
When attacked by insects, lima beans plant will often command parasitic wasps to their defence.
When the leaves of the lima bean's leaves are eaten by insects, the plant gives off a substance that signals parasitic wasps to swam in, destroying its enemies (the leaf-eating insects) in the process
Frogs drink water through their skin
Armadillos are western mammals known for their unique armor-like shell which are bulletproof
Although zebras are known for their characteristics black and white stripes, we still have some polka-dotted zebras
Charles Darwin is a British naturalist and biologist who contributed greatly into the study of evolution. According to research, he frequently ate the animals he studied
Lungs are the only human organ that can float on water
Unlike most snakes that lay eggs, anacondas give birth to live babies
A shrimp's heart is in its head
Women have more pain receptors than men
NOTABLE POINTS IN Biology
For a thing to be considered living, it must possess all the basic characteristics of life. These include:
Irritability or Sensitivity
During strenuous exercises like sprinting or running, your body may actually work in the shortage of oxygen. During this time, your body owes oxygen (called oxygen debt) and it must be replenished or repayed after the exercise is stopped. This is why you breathe excess of oxygen after you stopped the exercise.
This is the concept of anaerobic respiration
A food chain is a diagram that shows the relationship between plants and animals within a habitat on the basis of how they rely on each other for food.
Note: Habitat is a place where an organism live. It is of three types:
The term Biology originated from two Greek words. They are:
Bios: means life.
Logos: means knowledge or to study.
Biology can therefore be defined as the study of life
Anything that has life is generally considered as a living organism (or organism). All living organisms must be able to carry the following activities:
Irritability or Sensitivity
The above listed points are often regarded as the basic characteristics of life. You can memorize them using the acronym -> MR. NIGER DAC.
The gas used in the manufacture of food by plants is Carbon dioxide or Carbon(IV)oxide or CO2
Plants manufacture food through a process called photosynthesis.
It is noteworthy to state that plants are the only orgnisms that take away CO2 from the atmosphere