Topics in BiologyImportance and limitations of ecological pyramid Protists explained with their characteristics Contents of the scrotum: Epididymis, vas deferens, spermatic cord and cremaster muscle Tropical savanna explained with its characteristics Concept of ecological pyramid Hindbrain: Medulla Oblongata and its features Food web explained with examples Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 2nd Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 3rd Term Male accessory sex organs: Seminal vesicles and bulbourethral glands Scrotum and its contents: Testicles Brain: Introduction to the human brain Forebrain: Lobes of the cerebrum and their functions Cerebellum: Parts and functions of the cerebellum Midbrain: Division and functions of the midbrain Negative feedback mechanism in homeostasis Arterial disorders explained with their causes Types of desert and their characteristics Characteristics of tropical rainforest
Academic Questions in Biology
From the above diagram, which of the organ below isn't a requirement for the male reproductive system?
C. Glans Penis
E. Bulbourethral Gland
A walnut shaped male accessory sex organ located between the bladder and penis is the _____.
A. Ductus Ejaculatorii
B. Bulbourethral Gland
C. Prostate Gland
D. Ductus Deferens
E. Seminal Vesicles
In a food chain, the primary consumers are classified under trophic level _____.
Cold blooded animals are referred to as _____.
F. None of the above
All reptiles are vertebrates.
_____ cells are responsible for the formation of osteoblasts.
_____ is a bone that constitute the axial skeleton.
Which of the following is false concerning cartilages and bones?
The forebrain, also called the prosencephalon is the largest part of the brain. It consists of the cerebrum, thalamus and hypothalamus.
The cerebrum is the largest part of the forebrain (and the entire brain itself). It occupies the largest portion of the cranium and is divided into two halves termed cerebral hemispheres. They are appropriately named the right and left cerebral hemispheres. Both hemispheres are joined by a bundle of fibres called corpus callosum.
Please read on the cranium and all 206 bones comprising the human skeleton here.
The image below shows both cerebral hemispheres and the corpus callosum.
Note: A function of the corpus callosum is to transmit nervous information between both cerebral hemispheres.
Each cerebral hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body; and are composed of four distinct lobes. The image below shows the 4 lobes of the cerebrum alongside a summary of their functions.
The cerebral lobes are:
Present in the temporal lobe of the brain are the hippocampus, amygdala, epithalamus, thalamus, hypothalamus, cingulate gyrus, mammillary body and parahippocampal gyri. Together, these are referred to as the limbic system, and they are crucial for the processing functions of the memory.
The image below shows the limbic system of the temporal lobe.
The thalamus is a small structure found between the cerebral cortex and the midbrain. It is a heterogeneous assembly of organized nuclei composed mainly of gray matter.
You can read on the midbrain here.
The hypothalamus is a portion of the forebrain made up small group of nuclei with various functions.
The hypothalamus is located just below the thalamus and above the pituitary gland. This is shown in the diagram below.
The main function of the hypothalamus is to create a link between the nervous system and endocrine system through the pituitary gland. For this reason, it is crucial in homeostatic roles via the release of hormones and temperature regulation.
Please read more on homeostasis here.
From the explanations so far on the cerebral hemispheres, below is a functional summary of the cerebrum:
Initiation and coordination of voluntary bodily activities. These will include a fine control of the hands and feet movements during sewing.
It performs higher functions like vision and hearing.
It controls speech and learning.
It acts as a center of emotion.
It controls reasoning and remembering.
It plays a part in mood control.
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Amazing facts in Biology
Platypus (sometimes referred to as the duck-billed platypus) is an egg-laying, semiaquatic mammal found in eastern Australia. It has no stomach and as such, its food goes from the mouth through the esophagus and directly to their intestines.
Pufferfish contain a toxin called tetrodotoxin. This makes them foul tasting and poisonous to predators. Tetrodotoxin is about 1,200 times more poisonous than cyanide, and there is enough toxin in one pufferfish to kill 30 adult humans. Unfortunately, there isn't any known antidote to this poison.
Interestingly, a delicacy in Japan (called fugu) is made from pufferfish. This meal is very expensive, and must be prepared by trained and licensed chefs. An improper preparation of fugu may lead to the customer's death. Sadly, such deaths are recorded annually
Wombats are the only animal with a cube-shaped poo. They can stack up these cube-shaped poo, marking their territory with it
Robert Wadlow (1918–1940) remains the tallest man ever recorded in the Guinness World Records. He was an American who stood at 8 feet, 11 inches.
An abnormally enlarged pituitary gland had resulted into Robert Wadlow's giant size.
Cockroach is the fastest land animal on six legs
Like humans, all apes laugh when tickled
An ostrich's eye is bigger than its brain
The upper front teeth are missing in giraffes. Meanwhile, like an adult human, a fully grown giraffe has 32 teeth but most are positioned at the back of their mouth
Slugs have four noses
Most insects hatch from egg but aphids give birth to their young alive
Notable points in Biology
An artery is composed of three layers:
The outermost layer is termed tunica adventitia (or tunica external). It consist mainly of collagen fibres and connective tissues that anchors the arteries to other nearby tissues.
The middle layer is named tunica media. It is made up of smooth muscles and elastic fibres that supports the artery in conveying blood at high pressures.
The inner layer is called tunica intima (or tunica internal). It is lined by a smooth tissue called endothelium, and is made up of a fine network of connective tissues.
All living organisms possess various features in order to survive in their environment. This is the concept of adaptation. As an instance, a fish is able to live in water because it has gills and fins.
Also, a camel is able to survive in the desert because it has large feet to aid walking on sand without sinking. It also has long eyelashes to help protect it from the blowing sand and wind.
Plants are also able to live in different habitats because they have the required adaptive features towards that habitat. For instance:
Plants that live in/on water are termed hydrophytes.
Plants that live on land with moderate amount of water are termed mesophytes.
Plants that live on deserts or arid lands are termed xerophytes.
The point is:
All organisms have various features on them that enables them adapt in their habitat
For a thing to be considered living, it must possess all the basic characteristics of life. These include:
Irritability or Sensitivity
Please read the explanations on all the basic characteristics of life here
During strenuous exercises like sprinting or running, your body may actually work in the shortage of oxygen. During this time, your body owes oxygen (called oxygen debt) and it must be replenished or repayed after the exercise is stopped. This is why you breathe excess of oxygen after you stopped the exercise.
This is the concept of anaerobic respiration
A food chain is a diagram that shows the relationship between plants and animals within a habitat on the basis of how they rely on each other for food.
Note: Habitat is a place where an organism live. It is of three types: