Brain: Introduction to the human brain

len Alfred Ajibola - Thu, 06th February, 2020 @ 2:32 PM

Topics in Biology

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Academic Questions in Biology

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In a food chain, the primary consumers are classified under trophic level  _____.

  • A. Zero

  • B. One

  • C. Two

  • D. Three

  • E. Four

  • F. Five

Cold blooded animals are referred to as _____.

  • A. Homeotherms

  • B. Endotherms

  • C. Poilokitherms

  • D. Ectotherms

  • E. Thermotherms

  • F. None of the above

All reptiles are vertebrates.

  • A. True

  • B. False

_____ cells are responsible for the formation of osteoblasts.

  • A. Osteocytes
  • B. Chondrocytes
  • C. Chondroblasts
  • D. Osteoclasts
  • E. Osteoprogenitor cells
  • F. Osteoblastic

_____ is a bone that constitute the axial skeleton.

  • A. Clavicle
  • B. Scapula
  • C. Patella
  • D. Radius
  • E. Sternum
  • F. Femur

Which of the following is false concerning cartilages and bones?

  • A. Cartilage does not have a direct blood supply while bones have direct blood supply
  • B. The process of ossification replaces a cartilage to bone
  • C. The protein that makes up cartilage is called chondrin while that that makes up bone is called ossein
  • D. Cartilage grows from both ends while bones grow from one of its epiphysis
  • E. They both have living cells within them
  • F. Haversian system is absent in cartilage but present in bones

A diagram showing the movement of energy through a food chain is called a _____.

  • A. Food Chain
  • B. Food Web
  • C. Food Energy
  • D. Food Link
  • E. Food Flow
  • F. Food Pyramid

Which of the following is NOT a part of the wrist bones (or carpal bones)?

  • A. Cuboid
  • B. Scaphoid
  • C. Hamate
  • D. Triquetral
  • E. Pisiform
  • F. Trapezium

The Brain:

The brain is one part of the central nervous system or CNS; (the other part being the spinal cord). It is located in a part of the skull called the cranium.

Please read on the cranium and bones of the human skeleton here.

The brain is regarded as the seat of control over every part of the body and apparently, it befits its location at the top of the human body. As the coordinator of all bodily activities (both voluntary, e.g walking and involuntary, e.g swallowing), the brain receives nervous impulses from every part of the body (from the hair on our body to the tip of our nails). In short, without the brain's majestic control, the entire part of the body will be in chaos.

You can read on homeostasis here.

An average human brain comprises of about 100 billion brain cells called neurones or nerve cells.

Other cells are also present around the neurones. These include astrocytes, microglia and glia cells respectively. Together, they provide support, protection and cleansing to the neurones or brain cells.

If a brain cell dies, the chances of regeneration are quite low and this would grive rise to Alzheimer's disease which is often seen in aged people.

Alzheimer's disease is usually associated with memory loss and confusion as its main symptoms.

Please read more on the cerebrum here.

The human brain weighs about 1.5kg and makes up approximately 2% of the body weight. It receives around 20% of the body's glucose and oxygen.

Human brains are shaped like a wrinkled walnut. They are highly folded into gyri and grooved into sulci. The greater the number of these folds (gyri) and grooves (sulci), the more intelligent a person would be.

Please read on the uniqueness of man here.

The image below shows the gyri and sulci of the human brain:

Human Brain Gyri and Sulci - Len Academy

The largest portion of the brain (called the cerebrum) is divided into two halves. Both halves, commonly referred to as the cerebral hemispheres are separated by a band of neuronal fiber called the corpus callosum.

The corpus callosum transmits sensory and motor information between the right and left cerebral hemispheres.

A part of the brain called the cerebellum is also divided into two hemispheres. These are the right and left cerebellar hemispheres respectively.

Please read on the cerebellum here.

Interestingly, it is always considered that the left hemisphere of the brain is responsible for controlling the right side of the body while the right hemisphere controls the left side of the body. This is termed lateralization of the brain.

Please read some amazing facts in biology here.

The image below shows the left and right hemispheres and the lateralization of the brain.

Right and Left Hemisheres of the Brain with Functions - Len Academy

Note: We have some specific functions that are associated with either the left or right hemisphere of the brain. For instance, musical tendencies are usually related to the right hemisphere and language is common to the left.

A fluid called the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) surrounds and fills all the gaps around the brain (and the spinal cord). It aid in the cushioning and protection of the brain cells. As a result, the brain cells float within the cerebrospinal fluid and are not directly in contact with the cranium.

The image below show the cerebrospinal fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord:

Cerebrospinal fluid - Len Academy

You can read on the functions of the human skeleton here.


Divisions of the brain

Below is an image that shows the three main divisions or parts or regions of the brain.

Forebrain, Midbrain and Hindrain - Len Academy

Generally, the human brain is divided into three main parts. These are:

  1. Forebrain
  2. Midbrain
    Please read on the midbrain here.
  3. Hindbrain

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Amazing facts in Biology

Panda eating bamboo - Len Academy

99% of a panda's diet is bamboo. They may eat fish or other small animals occasionally

When attacked by insects, lima beans plant will often command parasitic wasps to their defence.

When the leaves of the lima bean's leaves are eaten by insects, the plant gives off a substance that signals parasitic wasps to swam in, destroying its enemies (the leaf-eating insects) in the process

Frogs drink water through their skin

Armadillos - Len Academy

Armadillos are western mammals known for their unique armor-like shell which are bulletproof

Polka-dotted zebra - Len Academy

Although zebras are known for their characteristics black and white stripes, we still have some polka-dotted zebras

Charles Darwin is a British naturalist and biologist who contributed greatly into the study of evolution. According to research, he frequently ate the animals he studied

Lungs are the only human organ that can float on water

Unlike most snakes that lay eggs, anacondas give birth to live babies

Shrimp - Len Academy

A shrimp's heart is in its head

Women have more pain receptors than men


For a thing to be considered living, it must possess all the basic characteristics of life. These include:

  1. Movement

  2. Respiration

  3. Nutrition

  4. Irritability or Sensitivity

  5. Growth

  6. Excretion

  7. Reproduction

  8. Death

  9. Adaptation

  10. Competition

Please read the explanations on all the basic characteristics of life here

During strenuous exercises like sprinting or running, your body may actually work in the shortage of oxygen. During this time, your body owes oxygen (called oxygen debt) and it must be replenished or repayed after the exercise is stopped. This is why you breathe excess of oxygen after you stopped the exercise.

This is the concept of anaerobic respiration

Food Chain - Len Academy

A food chain is a diagram that shows the relationship between plants and animals within a habitat on the basis of how they rely on each other for food.

Note: Habitat is a place where an organism live. It is of three types:

  • Terrestrial (Land)
  • Aquatic (Water)
  • Arboreal (Treetops)

You can read on food chain here

The term Biology originated from two Greek words. They are:

  • Bios: means life.

  • Logos: means knowledge or to study.

Biology can therefore be defined as the study of life

Anything that has life is generally considered as a living organism (or organism). All living organisms must be able to carry the following activities:

  1. Movement

  2. Respiration

  3. Nutrition

  4. Irritability or Sensitivity

  5. Growth

  6. Excretion

  7. Reproduction

  8. Death

  9. Adaptation

  10. Competition

The above listed points are often regarded as the basic characteristics of life. You can memorize them using the acronym -> MR. NIGER DAC.

You can read on the introduction to biology and the basic characteristics of life here

The gas used in the manufacture of food by plants is Carbon dioxide or Carbon(IV)oxide or CO2

Plants manufacture food through a process called photosynthesis.

Please read on photosynthesis here

It is noteworthy to state that plants are the only orgnisms that take away CO2 from the atmosphere