Topics in ICTIntroduction to routers in networking Wired router and wireless router explained What are core routers in networking? Virtual routers explained with its configuration Edge router explained with its types Domain Name System explained Types of computer network Functions of a router Computer scheme of work, SS1, First Term Computer scheme of work, SS1, Second Term Computer scheme of work, SS1, Third Term Introduction to computer networks Types of DNS server Open Systems Interconnect: Layers of the OSI Model Internet of Things (IoT), How IoT works, its advantages and challenges How to consume less data on android phone Best programming languages to learn The internet and world wide web explained Computer Hardware, Parts and Functions of Computer Hardware
Academic Questions in ICT
DNS belongs to layer _____ of the Open System Interconnect (OSI) model of networking.
Which of the following DNS servers receive queries directly from computers, phones and other client devices?
A. Root Nameserver
B. Top Level Domain (TLD) Nameserver
C. Bottom Level Domain (BLD) Nameserver
D. Authoritative Nameserver
E. Direct Nameserver
F. Recursive DNS Server
The uppermost layer of the Open System Interconnect (OSI) model of networking is the _____ layer.
E. Data Link
Concerning the internet of things, which of the following statement is incorrect?
A. Humans will become connected to the internet through the internet of things
B. It refers to the billions of physical devices that will be connected to the internet
C. Big data is associated with the internet of things
D. Presently, we have more humans living on earth that things connected to the internet
E. China, North America and Europe accounts for over two thirds of internet connected things
F. The ultimate goal of the Internet of things will be made a reality through IPv6
What is the first step towards disabling automatic image download on WhatsApp?
A. Click on the three dots on the top right hand corner
B. Click on the WhatsApp logo
C. Click on the settings icon on the top right corner
D. Click on the settings icon located on the to top-center of the app
E. Click directly on the storage and data icon located on the top right corner
F. Click on the mobile data usage icon located on the top right corner
The followings are ways to conserve data on android phones except _____.
A. Turning on data saving mode
B. Activating background apps
C. Use of Wi-Fi to update apps
D. Disable automatic image download on WhatsApp
E. Watch low resolution videos on youtube
F. Utilizing a reputable data saving app on google playstore
Twitter was launched in _____.
Due to the limitation of the Internet Protocol version 4 address, _____ was created.
The internet is a globally connected network system that uses the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP) to transmit data via various types of media.
To better comprehend the TCP and IP protocols, please read on the Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) model of networking here.
The media required to make internet communication work include fiber-optics, copper cables and wireless technologies.
For now, think of the internet as a public network that spans the entire globe. It is generally considered as the Network of all networks because of its massive size.
Anyone with an internet enabled device (with data) can be connected to the internet. In fact, you are connected to the internet in order to read this article.
Although sometimes used interchangeably by various persons, the terms internet and world wide web are actually not the same thing.
Think of the world wide web (www) as all the documents, files (images, videos, PDF, text and so on) located on various servers in different parts of the world. To this end, this article you're reading is only one of the billions of files that make up the world wide web. In short, this article you're reading is located on a server somewhere (world wide web) and you require an internet to access it.
In practical terms, you probably visit various websites on the web. The respective pages (visited by you) on all of these websites are a part of the world wide web. Apparently, it is practically impossible for a person to visit all the web pages (world wide web) of all websites.
A person will need to connect to the internet in order to access the world wide web; that is, the various files (web pages) stored in different servers around the world. To this end, you are connected to this webpage of Len Academy via an internet enabled phone or computer
The internet is the largest form of network. It is often referred as the 'mother of all networks'. Our world today is considered as a global village, all thanks to the internet.
The Internet grew from the 'Advanced Research Projects Agency's Wide Area Network' (ARPANET).
Interestingly, it was the US Department of Defense (DoD) that established the TCP/IP protocols which efficiently serves as the core of the internet (inter-networking).
TCP/IP is presently the backbone or core of internet technology.
With the above explanations the internet and world wide web, let's consider the various events and their respective year of commencement regarding internet evolution.
1972: Email over a network was introduced by BBN’s Ray Tomlinson.
1973: Internetworking became a reality when the University College of London and Royal Radar Establishment made connection to ARPANET. The term 'internet' (which means a network containing all networks) was born.
1974: The first Internet Service Provider (ISP) came into existence.
1982: Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP), commonly referred to as TCP/IP, emerged as the protocol for ARPANET. To this day, it still remains the standard protocol of the Internet.
1983: The Domain Name System (DNS) created the '.com .edu .gov .org and .net' systems for naming websites.
Please read more on DNS here.
1985: The first registered domain name - 'symbolics.com' came into existence.
1987: The number of hosts (that is, computers, phones and other devices that can be connected to the internet) exceeded 20,000.
1987: Cisco made its first router.
Please read on routers here.
1991: The world wide web (www) was introduced to the public by CERN.
1992: The first audio and video were uploaded over the internet.
1992: The phrase 'surfing the Internet' became popular.
1993: The number of websites reached 600.
1993: White House and United Nations go online.
1994: Microsoft creates a Web browser for Windows 95.
1994: Yahoo! is created by Jerry Yang and David Filo.
1995 Amazon and eBay were launched online.
1995: Match.com became the first online dating site to be launched.
1996: 'The Dancing Baby' becomes the first viral internet video.
1997: Netflix is founded by Reed Hastings and Marc Randolph.
1998: Google search engine came into existence.
1998: The Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPV6) is introduced to cover up for the potential insufficient IPV4 addresses.
1999: Netscape is bought by AOL.
2000: Yahoo! and eBay services became temporarily unavailable as they were hit by the Denial of Service attack (DoS).
2003: The worm 'SQL Slammer' spread over the internet within 10 minutes.
2003: Skype, Myspace and the Safari Web browser came into existence.
2003: WordPress is launched.
2004: Facebook goes online.
2004: Mozilla Firefox browser is launched.
2005: YouTube is born.
2005: Reddit is launched.
2006: Twitter is launched.
2006: Jack Dorsey, the founder of twitter, sends out the very first tweet: 'just setting up my twttr'.
2009: The Internet marked its 40th year of existence.
2010: Facebook had 400 million active users.
2010: Pinterest is launched.
2010: Instagram is born.
2015: Twitter reached 316 million users.
2015: Instagram reached 400 million users.
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Amazing facts in ICT
1,000 computers are used to retrieve the answers to your Google search (query) in 0.2 seconds
The first hand-held mobile phone call was made in New York City on April 3rd, 1973
The logo for gmail was designed the night before it was launched
Coca Cola owns all the domain names (website names) that can be read as ahh. They include: ahh.com, ahhh.com, ahhhh.com, ahhhhh.com, ahhhhhh.com and so on..., all the way up to 62 'h's!
YouTube is a video-sharing platform which commenced operations on February 14, 2005 (Valentine's day). Three former PayPal employees -> Chad Hurley, Steve Chen and Jawed Karim created the YouTube service (as a dating app) until Google bought it in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion
Smoking near an Apple (Mac) computer voids the warranty.
When you add /4 to the end of Facebook's URL, it will take you to Mark Zuckerberg.
You can try it on you own; or better still, try the link below:
Apple iPad retina display is actually manufactured by Samsung
The big five tech companies of the world as at 2018 are :
Notable points in ICT
Python is one of the most popular programming languages, and will still remain relevant for a long time.
Python can be used for almost every kind of project including web application, machine learning, mobile and desktop applications, networking servers, APIs, scrapers, application’s backend and so on.
There is a great availability of third-party libraries for the python language. For this reason, it becomes one one of the easiest languages to learn as a beginner.
Believe it or not, Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) still remains one of the most popular backend language for web applications, even though it is currently facing a stiff competition from python language.
Content Management Systems (CMS) like wordpress and drupal are written in PHP for its backend. Interestingly, some of facebook’s backend were also written in PHP.
As at 2019, the backend of more than 40% of active websites are powered with PHP. In fact, Len Academy is also powered by PHP for its backend.
If you wish to manipulate databases via Structured Query Language (SQL) with a programming language that has dynamic capabilities, then PHP is your language of choice.
Below are notable dates on internet evolution:
1983: The Domain Name System (DNS) created the '.com .edu .gov .org and .net' systems for naming websites
1985: The first registered domain name - 'symbolics.com' came into existence
1992: The first audio and video were uploaded over the internet
1992: The phrase 'surfing the Internet' became popular
1993: The number of websites reached 600
1993: White House and United Nations go online
1994: Microsoft creates a Web browser for Windows 95
1994: Yahoo! is created by Jerry Yang and David Filo
1995 Amazon and eBay were launched online
1996: 'The Dancing Baby' becomes the first viral internet video
1997: Netflix is founded by Reed Hastings and Marc Randolph
1998: Google search engine came into existence
2003: The worm 'SQL Slammer' spread over the internet within 10 minutes
2004: Facebook goes online
Computer hardware is the collection of physical parts of a computer system.
Physical parts of a computer are those parts that you can see and touch. It may also be referred to as the 'equipment of the computer'.
When the computer case is opened (with a screwdriver), one would see the different hardware components inside of it. It's important to state that some other hardware components are present outside the computer case; and these are termed peripherals.
Below are hardware components seen inside the computer case:
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
Graphics Processing Unit (GPU)
Power supply Unit (PSU)
Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) slots
Network Interface Card (NIC)
Random Access Memory (RAM)
Solid State Drive (SSD)
Optical Disc Drives (external present)
USB port, PS2 port, Ethernet port and other ports
Expansion Ports / Slots
Hardware components seen outside the computer case are called peripherals. The peripherals are grouped into the following:
Input devices: They provide information to the computer.
Output devices: Brings out information from the computer.
Storage devices: They store information or data.
Below are examples of some peripherals:
Touch Pad (input)
Universal Serial Bus (USB) flash drive or memory card (storage)
Hard disc drive (storage)