Pressure Group in Nigeria - Types and Examples

len Alfred Ajibola - Thu, 21st March, 2019 @ 3:58 PM

Topics in Government

Arms of Government: Functions of the Executive, Legislature and Judiciary Scheme of Work for Government, SS1, First Term Scheme of Work for Government, SS1, Second Term Scheme of Work for Government, SS1, Third Term Concept, Advantages and Disadvantages of Multi-Party System Concept, Advantages and Disadvantages of Two-Party System Pressure Group: Types of Pressure Group Characteristics of Pressure Group Constitution - Types of Constitution Government - Scope of Government Government - Characteristics of Government Government - Importance of Government One-Party System explained Multi-Party System explained with its Characteristics Party System: Zero Party System Two-Party System explained with its Characteristics Democracy and Types of Democracy Democracy - Characteristics of Democracy Government - Types and Forms of Government Government - Functions of Government

Academic Questions in Government

Please check out our Test Your Knowledge page to see all Questions and Answers

A type of democracy whereby shura is practiced is termed _____ democracy

  • A. Direct

  • B. Indirect

  • C. Constitutional

  • D. Islamic

  • E. Authoritarian

  • F. Participatory

A type of democracy whereby the people vote a bill into law is termed _____ democracy

  • A. Direct

  • B. Indirect

  • C. Constitutional

  • D. Islamic

  • E. Authoritarian

  • F. Participatory

In democracy, every citizen has got the right to vote and be vote for. Also, the principle one man one vote in this regard refers to which characteristic of democracy?

  • A. Separation of power

  • B. Freedom of expression

  • C. Constitutional supremacy

  • D. Rule of Law

  • E. Political equality

  • F. Popular sovereignty

Democracy is defined as a government formed by the consent of the governed.

  • A. True

  • B. False

Which of the following is not a type of democracy?

  • A. Peripheral democracy

  • B. Direct democracy

  • C. Islamic democracy

  • D. Representative democracy

  • E. Participatory democracy

  • F. Authoritarian democracy

Which of the following is not a characteristics of democracy?

  • A. Kingdom supracy

  • B. Rule of law

  • C. Political equality

  • D. Separation of power

  • E. Freedom of expression

  • F. Popular sovereignty

The following are functions of government except _____.

  • A. To provide free money for her citizens

  • B. To make laws as contained in the constitution

  • C. To defend and protect the lives and properties of her citizens

  • D. To provide a justice system

  • E. To generate revenue for the country

  • F. To maintain law and order through the law enforcement agencies

Government may be defined as an agency or machinery or instrument that is established to manage the general welfare of the people that make up a country.

In the above statement, government is defined _____.

  • A. As a process

  • B. As an act of governing

  • C. As an institution of a state

  • D. As an academic field o study

  • E. As a political wheel

  • F. As a machine of movement



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Pressure Groups:

Pressure groups are present in every country of the world. These groups are crucial to the members who make them up because they wield the power to influence the government and governmental Institutions, alongside their policies and laws through their actions.

Note: The pressure group can also influence any political institution, society, another group or an individual.

By definition, a pressure group is any formal and organized body or group of people with the same interest and whose main goal is to put pressure on any governmental institution in order to influence government policies and laws to their own gain.

Please read on the characteristics of pressure groups here.

An example of a pressure group whose voice is often heard in Nigeria is the Academic Staff Union of Universities (ASUU).

Another instance of a pressure group in Nigeria is the Bring Back Our Girls (BBOG) group who pressured the Nigerian government into taking appropriate actions towards the release of the 276 kidnapped female secondary students popularly referred to as the Chibok Girls, in Chibok, Bornu State, Nigeria.

Bring Back Our Girls - Len Academy

Note: These innocent female students were kidnapped by the so called 'Boko Haram' terrorists on the night of April 14th - 15th, 2014.

The above pressure group was massive globally to an extent that even the first ladies of various foreign countries became a part of it.

Please read on the introduction to government and definitions of government here.

A legendary Nigerian artist by name Innocent Idibia (popularly called 2face) made a song titled 'Bring Back Our Girls'. He featured various artists on this song as they all made their voices heard towards the release of the kidnapped Chibok girls.


Pressure Groups in Nigeria

The Ethinic Pressure Group is a type of pressure group.

Please read on the introduction to pressure groups and types of pressure groups here.

Some of the ethnic (or regional) pressure groups present in Nigeria include:

1. Afenifere

Formed in 1993 in the houses of Chief Bola Ige and Alhaji Lateef Jakande, Afenifere is a socio-cultural organization formed in the interest of the Yoruba people within Nigeria and beyond.

Afenifere preserves the identity, culture and vision of the Yoruba people.

Please read on values and type of values in civic education here.

Its first leader was Chief Abraham Adesanya while Chief Bola Ige served as the deputy leader.

After the death of Chief Abraham Adesanya, another similar group called "Afenifere Renewal Group (ARG)" came into existence in 1998.

2. Arewa Consultative Forum (AFC)

The Arewa Consultative Forum is a pressure group established on 7th March, 2000. They are considered to be the most influential group in Northern Nigeria.

The main goal of AFC is to maintain the unity of the Northern region in Nigeria. Infact, they acclaim themselves to be the pillar of unity with regards to Northern democracy.

Please read more on democracy and its characteristics here.

Arewa Consultative Forum are seen to be very active on issues relating to Nigerian politics.

3. Ijaw Youth Council (IYC)

The Ijaw Youth Council (fondly called Ijaw Youths) was formed on the 11th day of December 1998 in Kaiama, Bayelsa State.

IYC are considered to be the most active pressure group in the South-South region of Nigeria.

They stand and fight for the civil and fundamental rights of their people.

Please read on your fundamental human rights here.

Due to the presence of oil in this region, they had constantly demanded for an independent government in order to manage their own resources.

Please read on the various types/forms of government here.

  • Mujahid Asari Dokubo is a former head of this pressure group.

4. Middle Belt Forum (MBF)

The MBF is a socio-political group in the Middle Belt region of Nigeria.

Although the diverse ethinic group within this region are often considered as minority in Nigeria, the MBF have actively and effectively worked towards the liberation of her people from the domination of other geo-political zones in Nigeria, especially the Nothern Nigeria.

You can read on the attributes of a resident and citizen here.

The Middle Belt states in Nigeria include Benue, Plateau, Nassarawa, Abuja (FCT), Kogi, Kwara, Taraba, Adamawa and Niger States respectively.

5. Ohanaeze Ndigbo

This is the ultimate pressure group in the Eastern part of Nigeria.

After the Nigerian Civil war, they came into existence in 1976 with the core aim of unifying the Igbo people living within and outside Nigeria.

Ohaneze Ndigbo are known to fight for the civil and democratic rights of the Igbos.

Ohanaeze Ndigbo had been successfully headed by Chief Kingsley Mbadiwe, Dr. Francis Akanu Ibiam, Dr. Michael I. Okpara, Dr. Pius Okigbo and Chief Jerome Udorji.

Please read on Herbert Macaulay, the Nigerian Nationalist here.


Other examples of Pressure Groups in Nigeria are:

  • Odua Peoples Congress (OPC)
  • Nigerian Labour Congress (NLC)
  • Nigerian Bar Association (NBA)
  • Christian Association of Nigeria (CAN)
  • Nigerian Supreme Council for Islamic Affairs (NSCIA)
  • Please read on various Nigerian acronyms and their meanings here.

  • National Association of Nigerian Student (NANS)
  • Nigerian Medical Association (NMA)
  • Bring Back Our Girls (BBOG)
  • Campaign for Democracy (CD)
  • Civil Liberties Organization (CLO)
  • Committee for the Defense of Human Rights (CDHR)
  • Academic Staff Union for Universities (ASUU)

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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.

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Amazing facts in Government

Abraham Lincoln, the great human emancipator, freedom fighter and 16th American president was popular for the saying:

Government of the people, by the people and for the people

Abraham Lincoln, the 16th president of the United States of America was a professional wrestler before he assumed the office of the American President. Interesting, he was only defeated once in his wrestling career


The organs of government (also referred to as arms of government or branches of government) are:

  1. Executive

  2. Legislature

  3. Judiciary

These three arms of government serves as a separation of power.

Separation of Power implies that they carry out their distinct (separate) functions and responsibilities in accordance to the nation's constitution.

The president (who is number one citizen of a country and the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces) is the head of the executive arm of government. It is the responsibility of the executive to enforce or execute the law.


The legislature is a group of elected persons who are required to make law.

In Nigeria, the legislature consist of the bicameral national assembly which are:

  1. The upper house or chamber (Senate)

  2. The lower house or chamber (House of Representative)


The judiciary is an independent arm of government whose power is enforced in the courts.

Like the executive and legislature, they function under the guidance of the constitution.

Please read more on the organs of government here

Below are some functions of the executive arm of government:

  1. They ensure the security of the citizens in a country.

  2. The executive cannot pass laws into the constitution. Instead, they can forward bills to the legislature (or parliament) which will deliberate upon it. (Think of 'bill' as a proposal to be made into law; which will be submitted to the parliament in the form of a draft act).

  3. It is the president's responsibility to provide quality healthcare system, education, good roads (transport system), power, labour and finance through his ministers. For instance, the minister of agriculture oversees the affairs of agriculture in a nation. The ministers may also be accountable to the national assembly with regards to how they go about their ministries.

  4. They bring about maintenance of law and order in a country through the National Security Agencies (NSA) like the police, army, navy and air force.

  5. They prepare and execute the nation’s budget.

  6. The president approves the law into the constitution.

Plesse read more on the functions of executive, legislative and judiciary arms of government here

No one is above the constitution, even the president or prime minister.

  • The constitution is the supreme law in a country, nation or state.

  • The constitution specifies how the nation or state should be governed.

  • The constitution gives power to the different organs of government; (that is,  the executive, judiciary and legislature).

  • The constitution consists of all the fundamental human rights of the people.

Juxtaposing the above points, below is a definition for the term constitution:

Constitution is a supreme law that specifies the government of a nation, the distribution of powers to the different organs of government within that nation and the fundamental rights of all her citizens.

Please read more on the constitution here

Below are some qualities or characteristics of a constitution:

  • It is neither too rigid nor too flexible.

  • It accounts for the rule of law, de-centralization of power, an independent Judiciary system and processes of election transparency.

  • It accounts for the fundament human rights of the people.

  • It allocates power to the different arms of government.

  • It must uphold the people’s sovereignty.

  • It is written systematically.

You can read on the types of constitution here.

Dictatorship is one of the forms of government. It can exist either as:

  1. Military Dictatorship
  2. Civilian Dictatorship

In 1966, Major General Johnson Aguiyi Ironsi became the first military Head of State in Nigeria after he overthrew a democratic and constitutional government (headed by the prime minister; Alhaji Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa)

The above instance is a military form of dictatorship.

A typical example of a civilian dictatorship is Adolf Hitler of Germany and Joseph Stalin of Russia and Georgia

You can read more on dictatorship here