Agricultural Science

Definitions and Meanings of Agricutural terms (P - Q)

len Alfred Ajibola - Sat, 22nd June, 2019 @ 3:19 PM

Topics in Agricultural Science

Importance of forest: Forest reserves in Nigeria Wildlife reserves in Nigeria and its importance Prevention and Control of Crop Pests Economic Importance of Crop Pests Classification of Insect Pests and their Economic Importance Agricultural Machines and their Uses Soil Erosion: Causes of Soil Erosion Ways to prevent Soil Erosion Asexual Propagation in Plants, Types and Examples Differences between Gymnosperms and Angiosperms Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, First Term Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, Second Term Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, Third Term Len Academy Agric Science exam questions, JSS1, First Term Len Academy Agric Science exam questions, JSS1, First Term, part 2 Definitions and Meanings of Agricutural terms (P - Q) Definition and Meanings of Agricultural Terms (P and Q) part 2 Len Academy questions for Agric Science JSS1, 2nd Term Len Academy questions for Agric Science JSS1, 2nd Term, Part 2 Roles of Government in Agriculture

Academic Questions in Agricultural Science

Please check out our Test Your Knowledge page to see all Questions and Answers

Cordage is made from _____ crop.

  • A. Food

  • B. Fibre

  • C. Ornamental

  • D. Oil

  • E. Cash

  • F. Vegetables and Spice

_____ is defined as the solid and arable part of the earth where agricultural activities are be carried out.

  • A. Soil

  • B. Farmland

  • C. Agricultural land

  • D. Biosphere

  • E. Open land

  • F. Planting and grazing land

Gymnosperms and angiosperms are seed bearing plants under the division spermatophyta?

  • A. True

  • B. False

Which of the following is false concerning gymnosperms?

  • A. Cones are present

  • B. Sepals are present

  • C. Petals are absent

  • D. Only seeds are produced

  • E. Sporophyll form the cones

  • F. In seed formation, the ovules aren't present in the ovary

Which of the following statement is incorrect concerning seeds?

  • A. The ovary develops into the seed after fertilization

  • B. The embryo in the seed develops into a young plant

  • C. The seed's endosperm serve as a source of food reserve for the developing embryo

  • D. A seed has its own genotype

  • E. Seeds are products of sexual reproduction

  • F. Apomictic seeds aren't produced sexually and the hawkseed is an example

The _____ is the reproductive organ in plant's sexual reproduction.

  • A. Pollen grain

  • B. Ova

  • C. Sperm

  • D. Flower

  • E. Fruit

  • F. Seed

In flowering plants, fertilization occurs when the _____ comes into contact with the ova (as genetic materials are eventually exchanged).

  • A. Sperm

  • B. Endosperm

  • C. Exosperm

  • D. Stigma

  • E. Ovule

  • F. Pollen grain

The fusion of sperm and ova in animals leads to the formation of _____.

  • A. Foetus

  • B. Embryo

  • C. Ovary

  • D. Neonate

  • E. Zygote

  • F. Egg



Read more on its smart academic features here

Agricultural Terms:

As a student, having the knowledge of various agricultural terms will enhance your understanding of agricultural science.

In this article we will look at agricultural terms beginning with letters 'P' and 'Q'.


  • Parasite Load

This is the total number of parasites that are present in a host organism.


  • Parasite

A parasite is any organism that lives on another organism (called the host), feed on it, benefit at its expense and eventually causes harm to it.

An example of a parasite is plasmodium malariae whose hosts are humans.

Plasmodium (malaria parasite) is responsible for causing malaria in humans. It is a protist and a protozoan.

Please read more on protists and their characteristics here.


  • Parenchyma

The parenchyma is a plant supporting tissue composed of cells with simple pits. They also help plants to metabolize and store food materials.

The two types of parenchyma cells recognized in plants are:

  1. Axial parenchyma: These cells are seen in vertical positions.

  2. Ray parenchyma: The cells lie in horizontal positions.


  • Parturition

This is the process whereby an animal gives birth to one or more offspring.

Please read on agricultural terms and meanings, (letter A) here.


  • Pasteurization

This is the process of preserving milk by passing it through a mild temperature (usually less than 100oC) in order to kill all harmful bacteria; and without changing the physical and chemical composition of the milk.

Other products that can be preserved through pasteurization include yogurt, cheese, beer and wine.


  • Pastoralism

This is when a person or group of people go about their lives by raising and herding livestock such as cattle, sheep and goats.


  • Pastures

This is an area of land used for forage and grass production on which farm animals like cattle, sheep and goats graze on.

Recall that the savanna is also referred to as a grassland.

Please read more on the savanna here.


  • Peat

A peat is formed when vegetative materials are allowed to decompose partially into organic matter under wet conditions.


  • Peat Soils

These are soils that are formed from dead and partially decayed organic matter in a wet land.


  • Peatland

This is a general term used on an extensive area of wetland where peat has been formed.


  • Permanent Wilting Point

A plant is said to have reached its permanent wilting point when it has lost so much water to the extent that even when it’s put in a humid environment with enough watering, it will still not recover.


  • Pest

A pest is any organism that attack plants and plant products, causing damage and illness in the process.

Please read on agricultural pest and the crops attacked here.


  • Pesticides

These are chemicals or substances used for preventing, repelling and destroying pest on an agricultural land.

Please read on pest of agricultural importance here.


  • pH

This is the degree of acidity or alkalinity.

A soil that has a pH of 0 – 6.9 is said to be acidic.

A pH value of 7 is neutral.

pH with values 7.1 – 14 is considered to be alkaline.

The ideal pH of a soil for the optimum growth of most agricultural crops is between the values of 6 to 7.5.

Please read on agricultural terms and meanings, letters I - O here.


  • Photosynthesis

This is the process through which green plants manufacture sugars by utilizing carbon(IV)oxide (CO2) and water (H2O) in the presence of sunlight; as oxygen is given off as a by-product.

Photosynthesis usually occurs in the green leaf of plants. It may also occur in the plant’s stem.

The chlorophyll present in the chloroplast of plant’s leaf traps sunlight energy for photosynthesis.

Please read on autotrophic nutrition and photosynthesis here.


  • Phytoplankton

These are large communities of tiny or microscopic aquatic organisms comprising of photosynthetic bacteria, algae, dinoflagellates, diatoms, plants and plant-like protists living on water.

It may interest you to know that more than 60% of earth’s oxygen comes from the photosynthetic activities of phytoplanktons.

Please read more interesting facts here.


  • Pistil

This is the female part of a flower comprising of the ovary, stigma and style.

Note: The flower is the reproductive part of a plant.

Please read on sexual and asexual reproduction in plants here.


  • Pith

These are group of parenchyma like cells with intercellular spaces; and are located inwards to the plant’s vascular tissues (xylem and phloem), with the latter occupying the central region.


  • Pig

A pig is a young swine that weighs less than 54.4 kilogram.


  • Plant Available Water

This is the amount of soil water that can be absorbed by plant roots.

Please read on soil erosion here.


  • Plant Gums

This is an overall term for the viscous and adhesive plant substances produced as exudates from the bark of trees and shrubs.

Plant gums are sugars in nature. Examples of gums are pine and spruce gum.

Please read on carbohydrates and sugars here.

Please Read on agricultural terms and meanings (P - Q) part 2 here.

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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 10 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.

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Amazing facts in Agricultural Science

Peanuts are legumes and not nuts

Although plants neither see nor hear, they can recognize their siblings and even give them preferential treatments

Squirrels do plant more trees (through their actions) than an average human in their lifetime. They often hide their acorns and nuts underground and forget about them

Cows have got the ability to walk up stairs, but not down stairs

A group of cows is called a team, drove or herd.

People just prefer to call them herd

NOTABLE POINTS IN Agricultural Science

Below are some common types of erosion:

  • Water Erosion: It is caused by rainfall and flooding on the topsoil. As a result of water erosion, some layers of the topsoil are lost.

  • Sheet Erosion: When an entire surface of land becomes eroded at a uniform (equal) level, such is referred to as sheet erosion. It is shown below:
    Sheet Erosion - Len Academy

  • Wind Erosion: It results from the actions of wind on a bare land. Wind erosion is often seen in deserts. Overgrazing and lack of vegetation cover will also enhance wind erosion on topsoil.

Please read more on types of soil erosion here.

Soil erosion is defined as a process through which the topsoil is removed or moved from one point to another by agents like wind, water, man and animals.

Soil erosion occurs naturally (wind and water) and may also be facilitated by living organisms.

Soil erosion is more likely to occur on a sloppy land and land with no vegetation cover. When this occurs, the nutrient rich layer of the topsoil is washed away; and this ultimately results in fewer plants growing on such eroded soil.

Please read more on soil erosion here

There are about 630 different kinds of carnivorous plants.

Carnivorous plants are plants that derive some or most of their nutrients by consuming small animals, especially insects.

Carnivorous plants are also referred to as insectivorous plants.

Examples of carnivorous plants include sundew and Venus flytrap.

Please read more on carnivorous plants here