Topics in Basic ScienceSources, Functions and Deficiencies of Mineral Salts (Macro-nutrients) Sources, Functions and Deficiencies of Mineral Salts (Micro-nutrients) Len Academy questions for Basic Science JSS1, second Term Len Academy mid-term test questions for Basic Science JSS1, 2nd Term Micro organisms causing food, water and air borne Diseases Vectors of diseases Bones of the Human Body Meaning of Drugs, Type of Drugs and their side effects Immunization, Processes involved in immunization and its importance Carbohydrates and Sugars
Academic Questions in Basic Science
The ultimate source of energy is _____.
The speed of wind is measured with a wind vane.
TRUE or FALSE
The nutrient majorly found in the liver is _____.
A body at rest possess _____ energy.
Minerals salts are generally classified into two types based on the amount required by the body (on a daily basis). These are:
Macronutrients or Macro-elements: They are needed in a relatively large amount (more than 100mg per day). These are Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, Chlorine, Phosphorus and Sulphur.
Micronutrients or Micro-elements or Trace nutrients or Trace elements: They are needed in small to moderate amounts (less than 100mg per day). They include Iodine, Iron, Zinc, Copper, Fluorine, Selenium, Manganese, Chromium, Molybdenum and Cobalt.
Sources: Liver, Kidneys, Meat, Vegetables and Eggs
- Formation of hemoglobin in red blood cells. Hemoglobin is responsible for transporting oxygen in the blood. Please read on red blood cells and hemoglobin here.
- It is a part of myoglobin, cytochromes and chromatins
- Anemia (Reduced oxygen circulation in the blood)
- General body weakness
- Soreness of the tongue
Sources: Seeds, Whole grains, Eggs, Legumes, Meat and Shell fish
- Acts as a power antioxidant
- Assist in wound healing
- Helps in protein synthesis and collagen formation
- Boosts the immune System
- Acts as blood catalyst (in the conversion of carbonic acid into carbon(IV)oxide and water)
- Impaired immune function
- Delayed sexual maturation, Impotence
- Loss of appetite, Diarrhea
- Lesions of the eye and skin
- Acne, eczema, xerosis (dry scaling skin) and alopecia (hair loss)
- Psychological disorders
Sources: Milk, Meat, Green vegetables, Oysters, Dark chocolate and Eggs
- Catalyses the absorption of iron from the GIT (Gastro Intestinal Tract)
- Needed for aerobic respiration in some organisms
- Anemia (Reduced blood oxygen)
- Low White Blood Cell count
- Connective tissues disorders
- Neurological problems
Sources: Oats, Spinach, Broccoli, Fish and Nuts.
- Assists in the absorption and processing of vitamin B12
- Helps in blood production
- Acts as catalyst for the production of thyroid hormones
- Deficiency of vitamin B12
- Numbness and fatigue
- Tingling sensation of the hands and feet
Sources: Sea foods, Vegetables, Iodized salts, water and Beans
- Required by the thyroid gland to make the thyroid hormones (thyroxine and triiodithyronine)
Note: The thyroid hormone controls the body’s metabolism
- Goiter (swollen neck)
- Poor mental development in children
- Cretinism (severely stunted physical and mental growth)
- Fatigue and weakness
- Increased risk of pregnancy loss
- Hair loss, dry and flaky skin
Sources: Beans, Nuts, White meat, Sea food; Eggs and Pork
- It reduces the damages caused by excessive free radicals.
- It acts as a catalyst for vitamin E
- Myodegenerative diseases and muscular weakness
- Depression, anxiety and confusion
- Male infertility
- Kashin-Beck disease (Joint swellings and pains)
Sources: Wine, Seafood, coffee, water containing fluorine and Tea
- Prevention of tooth decay and dental caries
- Required for bone mineralization and solidification. Please read on the types of bone here.
- Required for the formational of enamel. The enamel is the white part of our teeth and it happens to be the strongest tissue in the human body. You can read on amazing facts in biology here.
- Osteoporosis (weakness and brittleness of bones).
- Dental caries or Tooth decay. Dental caries are caused from the acids produces by bacteria when breakdown food substances within our tooth
- Dental holes or holes in the gum
Sources: Beans, Peas, Nuts, Pumpkin, Waterleaf, and Fruits
- Removal of toxins from the metabolism of sulphur
- Cell protection against toxins
- It helps in the activation of antioxidant enzymes
- It helps the cell to produce energy (ATP) in the mitochondria
- Sulfate toxicity of the body cells
- Nausea, headache and vomiting
Note: Molybdenum deficiency is very rare since it is required by the body in very minute quantities. Also, it is present in a variety of food.
Sources: Legumes, Wheat bread, Pineapple, Nuts and Dark chocolate
- Required for the normal functioning of the nervous system
- It is required as a cofactor for various bodily enzymes
- It assists in the growth of bones
- It contributes to the body's immune system
- It is useful in the production of ATP in the cell's mitochondria
- Poor development of the skeletal system
- Impaired reproductive activities
- Stunted growth
- Improper carbohydrate and fat metabolism
Sources: Apples, Bananas, Potatoes, Pumpkin, Chicken, Beef and Dairy products
- It is needed for the synthesis of cholesterol
- It supports the utilization and breakdown of glucose
- Enhances carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism
- Reduces the rate of hunger
- Type 2 Diabetes (High blood glucose level)
- High blood cholesterol
- Heart diseses results
- Craving for sugary food
Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.
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Amazing facts in Basic Science
Rasceta is the name given to the lines on your ✋ palm ✋
Goats have rectangular pupils in their eyes.
Think of the pupil as a hole located in the centre of the iris of the eye.
Note: To get an idea of an iris; when one is said to have blue eyes, it's because the iris is blue
NOTABLE POINTS IN Basic Science
The eyebrow is an area of dense, delicate hair just above the eye.
Eyebrows perform two main functions:
Eyebrow modified in the form of Nike.
Image Credit: Unilad
Note: Eyebrows can also be modified to enhance beauty; especially female beauty.
All fruits have seeds. There is nothing like a naturally occurring seedless fruit. Even banana, coconut and pineapple have all got seeds.