Basic Science

Sources, Functions and Deficiencies of Mineral Salts (Micro-nutrients)

len Alfred Ajibola - Tue, 13th August, 2019 @ 12:34: PM

Topics in Basic Science

Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS2, 2nd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 3rd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 2nd Term Primates - Characteristics of Primates Effects of Improper Waste Management Waste Management: Causes of Waste Concept of Mass and Weight Sources, Functions and Deficiencies of Mineral Salts (Macro-nutrients) Sources, Functions and Deficiencies of Mineral Salts (Micro-nutrients) Len Academy questions for Basic Science JSS1, second Term Len Academy mid-term test questions for Basic Science JSS1, 2nd Term Micro organisms causing food, water and air borne Diseases Vectors - Examples of Vectors, Vector borne Organisms and the Diseases they cause Bones of the Human Skeleton Meaning of Drugs, Type of Drugs and Side effects of Drugs Immunization, Processes involved in immunization and its importance Food: Carbohydrates and Sugars Uniqueness of Man: Unique Characteristics of Man Waste Management: Types of Waste Matter: Concept of Matter

Academic Questions in Basic Science

Please check out our Test Your Knowledge page to see all Questions and Answers

Biomedic wastes are also referred to as _____ wastes.

  • A. Hospital

  • B. Recyclable

  • C. Metabolic

  • D. Green

  • E. Radioactive

  • F. Electronic

Sweat and urine are best considered as _____ waste.

  • A. Non-Biodegradable

  • B. Refuse

  • C. Recyclable

  • D. Metabolic

  • E. Green

  • F. Radioactive

_____ is defined as the process of collecting, processing, recycling and controlling any material considered as waste.

  • A. Waste collecting and processing

  • B. Waste processing and collecting

  • C. Waste recycling and control

  • D. Waste control and recycling

  • E. Waste treatment

  • F. Waste Management

Which of the following statement is FALSE concerning mass and weight?

  • A. Mass is the amount of matter in a body

  • B. The element hydrogen has the smallest mass

  • C. You will weigh more on planet jupiter than earth

  • D. Weight is a function of gravity

  • E. Mass and Weight have different Standard International (S.I) Units

  • F. None of the above

Which of the following statement is false concerning matter?

  • A. Anything considered as matter must either have mass or occupy space

  • B. Air is an example of matter

  • C. Plasma is a state of matter

  • D. Chemistry is considered as the study of matter and the changes they undergo

  • E. Vacuum is a space completely void of matter

  • F. Matter will always take up space no matter how small or invincible it is to the eyes

Which of the following is not matter?

  • A. Atom

  • B. Molecule

  • C. Ion

  • D. Bacterium

  • E. Virus

  • F. None of the above

The ultimate source of energy is _____.

  1. Plant
  2. Sun
  3. Food
  4. Water
  5. Air
  6. Earth

The speed of wind is measured with a wind vane.




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Minerals salts are generally classified into two types based on the amount required by the body (on a daily basis). These are:

  1. Macronutrients: They are also referred to as macro elements.
  2. They are needed in a relatively large amount (more than 100mg per day).

    Macronutrients include Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, Chlorine, Phosphorus and Sulphur.

  3. Micronutrients:They are also referred to as Micro elements or Trace elements or Trace nutrients.
  4. They are needed in small to moderate amounts (less than 100mg per day).

    The micronutrients include Iodine, Iron, Zinc, Copper, Fluorine, Selenium, Manganese, Chromium, Molybdenum and Cobalt.

    Please read on Mineral salts, their Sources, Functions and Deficiencies (Macronutrients) here


Sources, Functions and Deficiency of Macronutrients

Below are the Micronutrients, their Sources, Functions and Deficiency Symptoms:


Sources: Liver, Kidneys, Meat, Vegetables and Eggs.


Deficiency Symptoms

  1. Anemia (Reduced oxygen circulation in the blood).
  2. General body weakness.
  3. Soreness of the tongue.
  4. Inflammation.
  5. Headaches.



Sources: Seeds, Whole grains, Eggs, Legumes, Meat and Shell fish.


Deficiency Symptoms

  1. Impaired immune function.
  2. Delayed sexual maturation, Impotence.
    Please read on the Male Reproductive System here.
  3. Loss of appetite and Diarrhea.
  4. Lesions of the eyes and skin.
  5. Acne, eczema, xerosis (dry scaling skin) and alopecia (hair loss).
  6. Psychological disorders.



Sources: Milk, Meat, Green vegetables, Oysters, Dark chocolate and Eggs.


  • Catalyses the absorption of iron from the GIT (Gastro Intestinal Tract).
  • Needed for aerobic respiration in some organisms.

Deficiency Symptoms

  1. Anemia (Reduced blood oxygen).
  2. Low White Blood Cell count.
  3. Connective tissues disorders.
  4. Neurological problems.



Sources: Oats, Spinach, Broccoli, Fish and Nuts.


  • Assists in the absorption and processing of vitamin B12.
  • Helps in blood production.
  • Acts as catalyst for the production of thyroid hormones.

Deficiency Symptoms

  1. Deficiency of vitamin B12.
  2. Numbness and fatigue.
  3. Tingling sensation of the hands and feet.



Sources: Sea foods, Vegetables, Iodized salts, water and Beans.


  • Required by the thyroid gland to make the thyroid hormones (thyroxine and triiodithyronine).

Note: The thyroid hormone controls the body’s metabolism.

Please read on Homeostasis here.

Deficiency Symptoms

  1. Goiter (swollen neck).
  2. Poor mental development in children.
    Please read on the Uniqueness of Man here.
  3. Cretinism (severely stunted physical and mental growth).
  4. Fatigue and weakness.
  5. Increased risk of pregnancy loss.
  6. Hair loss, dry and flaky skin.



Sources: Beans, Nuts, White meat,  Sea food; Eggs and Pork.


  • It reduces the damages caused by excessive free radicals.
  • It acts as a catalyst for vitamin E.

Deficiency Symptoms

  1. Myodegenerative diseases and muscular weakness.
  2. Depression, anxiety and confusion.
  3. Male infertility.
  4. Kashin-Beck disease (Joint swellings and pains).
    Please read on All the Bones of the Human Body here.



Sources: Wine, Seafood, coffee, water containing fluorine and Tea.


Deficiency Symptoms

  1. Osteoporosis (weakness and brittleness of bones).
  2. Dental caries or Tooth decay. Dental caries are caused from the acids produces by bacteria when breakdown food substances within our tooth.
    Please read on Acids, Physical and Chemical Properties of Acids here.
  3. Dental holes or holes in the gum.



Sources: Beans, Peas, Nuts, Pumpkin, Waterleaf, and Fruits.


Deficiency Symptoms

  1. Sulfate toxicity of the body cells.
  2. Nausea, headache and vomiting.

Note: Molybdenum deficiency is very rare since it is required by the body in very minute quantities. Also, it is present in a variety of food.



Sources: Legumes, Wheat bread, Pineapple, Nuts and Dark chocolate.


Deficiency Symptoms

  1. Poor development of the skeletal system.
    Please read on Skeletal Materials and the Differences between Bones and Cartilages here.
  2. Impaired reproductive activities.
  3. Stunted growth.
  4. Diabetes.
  5. Improper carbohydrate and fat metabolism.



Sources: Apples, Bananas, Potatoes, Pumpkin, Chicken, Beef and Dairy products.


  • It is needed for the synthesis of cholesterol.
  • It supports the utilization and breakdown of glucose.
    Please read on Carbohydrates and Sugars here.
  • Enhances carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism.
  • Reduces the rate of hunger.

Deficiency Symptoms

  1. Type 2 Diabetes (High blood glucose level).
  2. High blood cholesterol.
  3. Heart diseses results.
  4. Craving for sugary food.
  5. Depression.

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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.

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Amazing facts in Basic Science

Sweat in itself doesn't smell. The smell that accompanies sweat is actually caused by the presence of bacteria on your skin. This bacteria breaks the sweat coming out of your sweat pores down into acids, thus making it smell.

Deodorants contains alcohol and are antibacterial. They work by killing the bacteria that makes sweat smell

Chewing aspirin during a heart attack may be a life saver. This is true because the drug inhibits platelets from forming a clot that can block an artery of the heart, thus stopping a heart attack

The kneecaps of newly born babies are not made of bone. Rather, they are little bits of cartilage which ossifies (turns from cartilages to bone) from age 2 to 6

Ice cubes made with fresh water are white in color while those made with boiled water are crystal clear

🐈 Cats 🐈 are unable to taste sweet things

🍎 Apples 🍎 actually float on water. Other fruits that float on water include 🍋 lemons, 🍌 bananas, 🍐 pears, and 🍊 oranges

Rain water contains vitamin B12.

Vitamin B12 is an important nutrient that keeps the blood cells and neurones healthy. It also assist in building the DNA (a genetic material present in the cell's nucleus). Vitamin B12 also aid in the prevention of megaloblastic anemia which makes people weak and tired

Rasceta is the name given to the lines on your ✋ palm ✋

Goats have rectangular pupils in their eyes.

Think of the pupil as a hole located in the centre of the iris within of the eye.

Note: To get an idea of an iris; 'when one is said to have blue eyes', it's because the iris is blue

Among all land animals, 🐘 Elephants 🐘 have the longest gestation period.

They stay pregnant for 22 months before giving birth to their young


Waste Management can be defined as the process of collecting, processing, recycling and controlling any material considered as waste.

Improperly disposed waste litters on road sides, in land fills, gutters and ditches. They are generally bad for the following reasons:

Wastes can be classified into various types. These are:

  • Biodegradable waste

  • Non-Biodegradable waste

  • Refuse

  • Sewage

  • Recyclable waste

  • Electronic waste

  • Green waste

  • Biomedical waste

  • Metabolic waste

  • Radioactive waste

  • Chemical waste

  • Animal product waste

Please read the explanations on the classification of wastes here

The African Star Apple is a seasonal fruit that grows abundantly in Nigeria and other West African Countries. It's fondly called African Cherry, Agbalumo or Udara in some parts of Nigeria.

African Star Apple, Cherry, Agbalumo, Udara - Len Academy

Below are some benefits of the African Star Apple:

  • It contains high amount of vitamin C

  • It contains a high amount of calcium

  • It contains high amount of potassium

  • It is a powerful antioxidant

  • It aids in weight reduction

  • It contains a high amount of iron

  • Its leaves, fruits and seeds are medicinal

  • It aids digestion and prevents vomiting

Please read more on the African Star Apple here

Disaccharides are composed of two monosaccharides joined together; thus are also referred to as double sugars.

Disaccharides are often added as sweeteners to food; for instance, the table sugar called sucrose is a disaccharide often used by us to sweeten our tea.

Maltose is another disaccharide used as an ingredient for making malt drinks, chocolates and candies.

The breast milk contains the disaccharide Lactose.

Lactose is very vital for the normal growth and development of infants.

In adults, disaccharides are non essential nutrients. This implies that we can live without them as adults.

Below is a summary of monosaccharides that make up disaccharides (double sugars).

  • Maltose = Glucose + Glucose

  • Lactose = Glucose + Galactose

  • Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose

Other examples of disaccharides include trehalulose and isomaltulose

Polysaccharides are complex sugars. These are what we often eat whenever we eat carbohydrates.

We have four types of polysaccharides namely:

  1. Starch
  2. Glycogen
  3. Chitin
  4. Cellulose


  • Starchy foods include rice, cassava and yam.

  • Glycogen is stored in the human liver; as a result of the joining of many glucose molecules.

  • Chitin is a major component of insect and anthropod's skeleton.

  • Cellulose is a major component of a plant's cell wall. They cannot be digested when eaten by humans; hence they function as roughages.

Roughages are not classified as one the classes of food in humans. This is due to the fact that they aren't digested. They will rather facilitate the movement of bowels in the large intestine (colon); and for this reason, they can be very useful in treating constipation.

Please read more on carbohydrates here