Basic Science

Sources, Functions and Deficiencies of Mineral Salts (Micro-nutrients)

len Alfred Ajibola - Tue, 13th August, 2019 @ 12:34: PM

Topics in Basic Science

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Academic Questions in Basic Science

Please check out our Test Your Knowledge page to see all Questions and Answers

Which of the following statement is FALSE concerning mass and weight?

  • A. Mass is the amount of matter in a body

  • B. The element hydrogen has the smallest mass

  • C. You will weigh more on planet jupiter than earth

  • D. Weight is a function of gravity

  • E. Mass and Weight have different Standard International (S.I) Units

  • F. None of the above

Which of the following statement is FALSE concerning matter?

  • A. Anything considered as matter must either have mass or occupy space

  • B. Air is an example of matter

  • C. Plasma is a state of matter

  • D. Chemistry is considered as the study of matter and the changes they undergo

  • E. Vacuum is a space completely void of matter

  • F. Matter will always take up space no matter how small or invincible it is to the eyes

Which of the following is NOT matter?

  • A. Atom

  • B. Molecule

  • C. Ion

  • D. Bacterium

  • E. Virus

  • F. None of the above

The ultimate source of energy is _____.

  1. Plant
  2. Sun
  3. Food
  4. Water
  5. Air
  6. Earth

The speed of wind is measured with a wind vane.


The nutrient majorly found in the liver is _____.

  • A. Carbohydrate
  • B. Starch
  • C. Protein
  • D. Fats
  • E. Oil
  • F. Lipids

A body at rest possess _____ energy.

  • A. Kinetic
  • B. Potential
  • C. Mechanical
  • D. Chemical



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Minerals salts are generally classified into two types based on the amount required by the body (on a daily basis). These are:

  1. Macronutrients: They are also referred to as macro elements.
  2. They are needed in a relatively large amount (more than 100mg per day).

    Macronutrients include Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, Chlorine, Phosphorus and Sulphur.

  3. Micronutrients:They are also referred to as Micro elements or Trace elements or Trace nutrients.
  4. They are needed in small to moderate amounts (less than 100mg per day).

    The micronutrients include Iodine, Iron, Zinc, Copper, Fluorine, Selenium, Manganese, Chromium, Molybdenum and Cobalt.

    Please read on Mineral salts, their Sources, Functions and Deficiencies (Macronutrients) here


Sources, Functions and Deficiency of Macronutrients

Below are the Micronutrients, their Sources, Functions and Deficiency Symptoms:


Sources: Liver, Kidneys, Meat, Vegetables and Eggs.


Deficiency Symptoms

  1. Anemia (Reduced oxygen circulation in the blood).
  2. General body weakness.
  3. Soreness of the tongue.
  4. Inflammation.
  5. Headaches.



Sources: Seeds, Whole grains, Eggs, Legumes, Meat and Shell fish.


Deficiency Symptoms

  1. Impaired immune function.
  2. Delayed sexual maturation, Impotence.
    Please read on the Male Reproductive System here.
  3. Loss of appetite and Diarrhea.
  4. Lesions of the eyes and skin.
  5. Acne, eczema, xerosis (dry scaling skin) and alopecia (hair loss).
  6. Psychological disorders.



Sources: Milk, Meat, Green vegetables, Oysters, Dark chocolate and Eggs.


  • Catalyses the absorption of iron from the GIT (Gastro Intestinal Tract).
  • Needed for aerobic respiration in some organisms.

Deficiency Symptoms

  1. Anemia (Reduced blood oxygen).
  2. Low White Blood Cell count.
  3. Connective tissues disorders.
  4. Neurological problems.



Sources: Oats, Spinach, Broccoli, Fish and Nuts.


  • Assists in the absorption and processing of vitamin B12.
  • Helps in blood production.
  • Acts as catalyst for the production of thyroid hormones.

Deficiency Symptoms

  1. Deficiency of vitamin B12.
  2. Numbness and fatigue.
  3. Tingling sensation of the hands and feet.



Sources: Sea foods, Vegetables, Iodized salts, water and Beans.


  • Required by the thyroid gland to make the thyroid hormones (thyroxine and triiodithyronine).

Note: The thyroid hormone controls the body’s metabolism.

Please read on Homeostasis here.

Deficiency Symptoms

  1. Goiter (swollen neck).
  2. Poor mental development in children.
    Please read on the Uniqueness of Man here.
  3. Cretinism (severely stunted physical and mental growth).
  4. Fatigue and weakness.
  5. Increased risk of pregnancy loss.
  6. Hair loss, dry and flaky skin.



Sources: Beans, Nuts, White meat,  Sea food; Eggs and Pork.


  • It reduces the damages caused by excessive free radicals.
  • It acts as a catalyst for vitamin E.

Deficiency Symptoms

  1. Myodegenerative diseases and muscular weakness.
  2. Depression, anxiety and confusion.
  3. Male infertility.
  4. Kashin-Beck disease (Joint swellings and pains).
    Please read on All the Bones of the Human Body here.



Sources: Wine, Seafood, coffee, water containing fluorine and Tea.


Deficiency Symptoms

  1. Osteoporosis (weakness and brittleness of bones).
  2. Dental caries or Tooth decay. Dental caries are caused from the acids produces by bacteria when breakdown food substances within our tooth.
    Please read on Acids, Physical and Chemical Properties of Acids here.
  3. Dental holes or holes in the gum.



Sources: Beans, Peas, Nuts, Pumpkin, Waterleaf, and Fruits.


Deficiency Symptoms

  1. Sulfate toxicity of the body cells.
  2. Nausea, headache and vomiting.

Note: Molybdenum deficiency is very rare since it is required by the body in very minute quantities. Also, it is present in a variety of food.



Sources: Legumes, Wheat bread, Pineapple, Nuts and Dark chocolate.


Deficiency Symptoms

  1. Poor development of the skeletal system.
    Please read on Skeletal Materials and the Differences between Bones and Cartilages here.
  2. Impaired reproductive activities.
  3. Stunted growth.
  4. Diabetes.
  5. Improper carbohydrate and fat metabolism.



Sources: Apples, Bananas, Potatoes, Pumpkin, Chicken, Beef and Dairy products.


  • It is needed for the synthesis of cholesterol.
  • It supports the utilization and breakdown of glucose.
    Please read on Carbohydrates and Sugars here.
  • Enhances carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism.
  • Reduces the rate of hunger.

Deficiency Symptoms

  1. Type 2 Diabetes (High blood glucose level).
  2. High blood cholesterol.
  3. Heart diseses results.
  4. Craving for sugary food.
  5. Depression.

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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.

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Amazing facts in Basic Science

Rasceta is the name given to the lines on your ✋ palm ✋

Goats have rectangular pupils in their eyes.

Think of the pupil as a hole located in the centre of the iris within of the eye.

Note: To get an idea of an iris; 'when one is said to have blue eyes', it's because the iris is blue

Among all land animals, 🐘 Elephants 🐘 have the longest gestation period.

They stay pregnant for 22 months before giving birth to their young

🦘 Kangaroos 🦘 can't walk backwards

The 🥛 milk 🥛 of an 🦛 hippopotamus 🦛 is pink in color

The seed of all fruits are present on the inside with the exception of one.

That exception is 🍓 strawberry 🍓

🍓 strawberry 🍓 has it's seed outside the fruit

It actually takes 🍍 pineapples 🍍 2 years to grow

The liquid inside a coconut 🥥 can be used as an excellent substitute for your blood plasma

Facts on Elephants - Len Academy

Elephants can't jump


The eyebrow is an area of dense, delicate hair just above the eye.

Eyebrows perform two main functions:

  1. Protects our eyes against sweat, rain, dirt and other atmospheric contaminants.
  2. It helps us express our emotions.

Eye Brow - Len Academy

Eyebrow modified in the form of Nike logo.

Note: Eyebrows can also be modified to enhance beauty.

All fruits have seeds.

There is nothing like a naturally occurring seedless fruit. Even banana, coconut and pineapple have all got seeds.

Weight can be defined as the force of gravity acting on an object.

If you traveled to space, you would be weightless because there isn't any force of gravity acting there. We all have weight on earth becasue the force of gravity acts here.

Weight is measured in Newton

Please read on the concept of Mass and Weight here

Mass is the amount or quantity of matter (substance) contained in a body. For instance, everything you are composed of, both from within and outside will make up your mass.

Mass is constant throughout the universe. You will have the same mass on earth and moon respectively.

Mass is measured in gram or kilogram and it's quite different from weight.

Matter is anything that has mass and occupy space.

Matter can exist in four states namely:

  • Solid
  • Liquid
  • Gas
  • Plasma