Civic Education

Examination malpractice in Nigeria, causes and solutions

len Alfred Ajibola - 28th December, 2022 @ 02:49 PM

Topics in Civic Education

Importance of values Examination malpractice in Nigeria, causes and solutions Orderliness in civic education Importance of orderliness Examples of orderliness Cooperation in civic education What is honesty? Who is a dishonest person? Consequences of dishonesty Cultism: Characteristics of Cultism Cultism: Reasons why people join Cults Illiteracy: Causes of Illiteracy Responsibilities, Duties and Obligations of a Citizen What is Civic Responsibility and Who is a Citizen? Reputation: How to build a good reputation Characteristics of Democracy Cooperation - Factors that promote Cooperation Cooperation: Types of Cooperation Attributes and Benefits of Honesty Meaning and Types of Values in Civic Education Community Service and Volunteer Service - Benefits of Community Service Consequences of Cultism and Solutions to Cultism

Academic Questions in Civic Education

Please click here to see all Questions and Answers

The following factors may contribute to illiteracy in a society except _____.

  • A. Presence of academic structures

  • B. Culture

  • C. Poverty

  • D. Dyslexia and Dysorthogràphia

  • E. Corruption

  • F. Lack of awareness

Dr. Stella Ameyo Adedavoh - Len Academy

The above image shows a gallant Nigerian, Doctor Stella Ameyo Adedavoh who sacrificed her life in the act of service, during a disease outbreak in the country. What disease outbreak was this?

  • A. Bird Flu

  • B. COVID-19

  • C. Monkey Pox

  • D. Ebola

  • E. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)

  • F. Chicken Pox

Which of the following is not an obligation of a citizen?

  • A. Payment of tax

  • B. Exercising the right to vote

  • C. Service as a jury when called upon

  • D. Fighting crimes without any need of reporting it

  • E. Ready to defend the country

  • F. Engagement in community and volunteer services

A legal process through which a citizen of one country gains citizenship into another country is termed _____.

  • A. International pass

  • B. Residential pass

  • C. Nationalization

  • D. Naturalization

  • E. Green card

  • F. Internationalization

A total estimation of a person's character and quality especially by those who know such person is termed _____.

  • A. Identity

  • B. Individual assessment

  • C. Behavior

  • D. Reputation

  • E. Principle

  • F. Cross examination

The following factors will promote cooperation except _____.

  • A. Achievement of a personal goal

  • B. Achievement of a common goal

  • C. Understanding the common goal

  • D. Understanding one another

  • E. Equality

  • F. None of the above options

Which of the following is not a benefit of honesty?

  • A. Respect and admiration is earned from other people

  • B. It makes one eligible for a greater responsibility

  • C. Honestly on oneself can eliminate negative peer pressure

  • D. It fosters a form of emotional, social and spiritual connection

  • E. Honestly leads to social segregation

  • F. Practicing honesty can favor goodwill

The attribute of honesty whereby a person is truthful, open and upright in whatever he or she does is termed _____.

  • A. Transparency

  • B. Contentment

  • C. Loyalty

  • D. Goodness

  • E. Reliability

  • F. Sincerity

What is Examination Malpractice?

Examination malpractice is defined as a deliberate, fraudulent, an improper and illegal conduct contradicting the examination rules either before, during or after an examination, perpetrated by an examination candidate (examinee), or even the examiner, ultimately placing the examinee at an unfair advantage or disadvantage. It is considered as one of the contemporary social problems in Nigeria.

Please read on the contemporary social problems in Nigeria here.


An instance of examination malpractice perpetrated before an examination is seen in the forms of exam leakage and bribery. In this regard, students may offer lecturers bribe in order to have a copy of the exam questions days before the examination is written.

Examination malpractice carried out during the examination are typically seen in the form of bringing cheat sheet into the examination hall, impersonation, use of internet to get answers, collusion, giraffing and so on.

Instances of examination malpractice done after an examination may occur in the form of bribery. In this instance, the students involved may have written poorly during the examination, or in some cases, may even be absent from the examination. However, such students bribe the lecturer in order to pass their poorly written exam. Meanwhile, some female students may choose to offer their body (for sex) to the lecturer involved, in an attempt to pass their poorly written exam.

Please read on orderliness here.


Examination malpractice is more common in tertiary and secondary academic institutions. It is indeed a fundamental problem in the Nigerian educational system and has eaten deep into its root. In fact, examination malpractice centers had existed in Nigeria for various national exams like the West African Examinations Council (WAEC), General Certificate Examination (GCE) and Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board (JAMB). The malpractice examination centers for these aforementioned exams were popularly called special centers. Unfortunately, special centers became a norm in Nigerian examination at that point in time. However, the various examination bodies are working so hard towards reducing it to its barest minimum. Significant progress have been made in this regard.

You can attempt Len Academy questions and answers here.


Understand that the use of examination is one of the main method employed in pupils and students assessment. Sadly, a good number of students in Nigeria carry out examination malpractice in an attempt to pass their exams.


Examination malpractice have been seen to occur in a variety of forms. These include bribery, absenteeism, impersonation, cheat sheet (or crib sheet), giraffing, exam leakage, intimidation, assault, collusion and sex for grades among others.

Please read on the attributes and benefits of honesty here.


Causes of Examination Malpractice 

Below are the causes of examination malpractice in Nigeria.


  1. Laziness on the part of the student.

  2. Poor renumeration to teachers and lecturers.

  3. Lack of appropriate disciplinary actions on cheating students.

  4. Peer pressure and bad gangs.
    You can read on cultism here.

  5. Bribery.

  6. Fear of academic failure.
    Please read on various motivational quotes for students here.

  7. Poor academic policies by the government.

  8. Poor home training of pupils and students.

  9. Poor invigilation and supervision during examinations.

  10. Low self-esteem.
    Please read on self-esteem here.

  11. Poverty and inability to purchase academic materials.

  12. Poor teaching techniques and recruitment of unqualified teachers.

  13. Lack of sufficient information to students concerning examination malpractice.
    Please read on interesting facts for students here.


Solutions to Examination Malpractice

Below are solutions to examination malpractice in Nigeria:


  1. Government should create enabling polices that will promote education and learning in Nigeria.
    Please read on corruption as a social problem in Nigeria here.

  2. Government and private schools should appropriately reward teachers and lecturers for their noble job.

  3. More Academic blogs like Len Academy should spring up to promote education in Nigeria and Africa at large.
    Please check out Len Academy key points in education here.

  4. Government and private schools should invest in their school's infrastructure.

  5. Appropriate disciplinary measures should be enforced on cheating students.

  6. Since charity begins at home, parent should appropriately train up their children and wards.
    Please read on roles, duties and responsibilities of citizens here.

  7. Government should encourage scholarships at various educational levels.

  8. Schools should start embracing the smart system of leaning.
    Please read more on the Len Academy smart school software here.

  9. Proper orientation of students on examination ethics.

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Amazing facts in Civic Education

Canadians are so popular for being incredibly polite. For this reason, the province of Ontario in 2009 passed the 'Apology Act'. The apology act states that:

Saying 'sorry', which can be an expression of sympathy or regret can't legally be considered an admission of guilt or fault


A citizen has the following rights:

  1. You have the entire right and privileges as defined in your country’s law.

  2. No one can take away your citizenship.

  3. You can hold a passport from your country of citizenship.

  4. You can pass your citizenship to your children.

  5. You don’t have to fulfill any minimum stay to become a citizen.

  6. Provided you have the passport of your country of citizenship, you are free to travel to any country which your country has travel agreement with.

  7. You can have dual citizenship.

A legal resident in a country has the following attributes within that country:

  • They must provide their bio-metric information.

  • They can enter their country of residence on many occasions. However, when they break any of the residents’ status, they may be denied further entry into the country of residence.

  • They are able to freely live, study, work and travel within their country of residence.

  • They will still utilize their international passport (from their country of citizenship) for travels, but not their resident card or permit.

  • They can become a resident after fulfilling their stay requirement. As an instance, one may become a resident when they had lived for 10 years in a country without any issues.

  • They can only naturalize (become a citizen) after faithfully living as a resident throughout the required number of years.

  • They can lose their residential status when convicted for serious crimes.

Please read more on the rights of citizens and attributes of residents here.

Cooperation can be defined as the process of coming together, working together and helping one another to achieve a common goal

According to A.W Green

Cooperation is the continuous and common endeavor of two or more persons to perform a task or to reach a goal that is commonly cherished

According to F.E Merrill

Cooperation is a form of social interaction wherein two or more persons work together to gain a common end.

There is this saying from the chairman of Microsoft concerning cooperation; and it goes thus:

Our success has really been based on partnerships from the very beginning - Bill Gates

Read more on cooperation here

Types of Cooperation:

  • Direct cooperation
  • Indirect cooperation
  • Social cooperation
  • Religious cooperation
  • Financial cooperation
  • Community cooperation
  • Occupational cooperation

Please read the details on the types of cooperation here

All human beings are entitled to their rights (human rights); but the truth is, we still have got limitations to some of these rights of ours. Below are 4 limitations:

  1. Soldiers have the right to life but when duty calls, they must be willing to die for their nation if need be.
  2. Although human beings have the right to movement, an insane person may be deprived of this right.
  3. Right to owning a property can be taken away. For instance, if a person is convicted of owning a property through corruption, stealing or another illegal means, such person will be punished in accordance with the law. Their right to those properties will be taken away.
  4. One who uses the right to freedom of speech in bringing about chaos in a democratized society will be penalized by the court of law.

Please on the fundamental human rights here